Access to housing became a major source of friction

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Access to housing became a major source of friction between blacks and whites during thismassive movement of people. Many cities adopted residential segregation ordinances to keepblacks out of predominantly white neighborhoods. In 1917, the Supreme Court declaredmunicipal resident segregation ordinances unconstitutional. In response, whites resorted to therestrictive covenant, a formal deed restriction binding white property owners in a givenneighborhood not to sell to blacks. Whites who broke these agreements could be sued by"damaged" neighbors. Not until 1948 did the Supreme Court strike down restrictive covenants.Confined to all-black neighborhoods, African Americans created cities-within-cities during the1920s. The largest was Harlem, in upper Manhattan, where 200,000 African Americans lived in aneighborhood that had been virtually all-white 15 years before.Marcus GarveyNo black leader was more successful in touching the aspirations and needs of the mass of AfricanAmericans than Marcus Garvey. A flamboyant and charismatic figure from Jamaica, Garveyrejected integration and preached racial pride and black self-help. He declared that Jesus Christand Mary were black; he exhorted his followers to glorify their African heritage and revel in thebeauty of their black skin. "We have a beautiful history," he told his followers, "and we shallcreate another one in the future."In 1917, Garvey moved to New York and organized the Universal Negro ImprovementAssociation (UNIA), the first mass movement in African American history. By the mid-1920s,Garvey's organization had 700 branches in 38 states and the West Indies. The organization alsopublished a newspaper with as many as 200,000 subscribers. The UNIA operated grocery stores,laundries, restaurants, printing plants, clothing factories, and a steamship line.In the mid-1920s, Garvey was charged with mail fraud, jailed, and finally deported. Still, the"Black Moses" left behind a rich legacy. At a time when magazines and newspapers overflowedwith advertisements for hair straighteners and skin lightening cosmetics, Garvey's message ofracial pride struck a responsive chord in many African Americans.Harlem RenaissanceThe movement for black pride found its cultural expression in the Harlem Renaissance, the firstself-conscious literary and artistic movement in African American history.During the 1920s, Harlem became the capital of black America, attracting black intellectuals andartists from across the country and the Caribbean. Soon, the Harlem Renaissance was in fullbloom. The poet Countee Cullen eloquently expressed black artists' long-suppressed desire tohave their voices heard: "Yet do I marvel at a curious thing: To make a poet black, and bid himsing!"Many of the greatest works of the Harlem Renaissance sought to recover links with African andfolk traditions. In "The Negro Speaks of Rivers," the poet Langston Hughes reaffirmed his ties toan African past: "I looked upon the Nile and raised the pyramids above it." In hisbook Cane (1923), Jean Toomer, the grandson of P.B.S. Pinchback, who served briefly as

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