Table 2 compares the marital status race ethnicity

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Table 2 compares the marital status, race, ethnicity, and educational status of women on maternity leave to information recorded about mothers on birth certi fi cates and shows that women on leave were qualita- tively and statistically distinct from all mothers who gave birth. From 1994 to 2015, ap- proximately three quarters of women on maternity leave were married, but less than two thirds of births occurred to married women. Women on maternity leave were much more likely to be non-Hispanic White compared with birth mothers. Table 2 shows that women on maternity leave had much more educational attainment than the typical women who gave birth. For example, 71.6% of women on maternity leave started or graduated college compared with 49.7% of birth mothers. Because edu- cational data from birth certi fi cate records has not been released for 2015, the calculations for educational attainment stop in 2014. A comparison of the age distribution of women on maternity leave with the age distribution of mothers who gave birth in 1994 to 2015 shows that the average woman on maternity leave is 2.4 years older (29.8 6 0.2 years) than the average woman giving birth (27.5 years 6 0.09 years; P < .01). Regression results are shown in Table 3. The combined and maternity data provide no statistical support for a time trend or seasonal pattern. They also suggest that states in- troducing paid leave did not appear to have any statistically measurable impact on the na- tional number of people on leave. Maternity leave did not appear to be related to current births, but was related to births in the previous month with a 0.42 coef fi cient (95% CI=0.05, 0.79). This coef fi cient suggests, but cannot prove, that for every 10 births in the United States, there will be roughly 4 more women on maternity leave the following month. Unemployment rates were negatively related to maternity leave and recessions were positively related, but neither was statistically signi fi cant. We tried additional variables tracking numbers of births in the past 2 months, 3 months, and 4 months plus data on the US population in the regressions, but we excluded these from the results because they were not statistically signi fi cant. There was a statistically signi fi cant rise in the number of men taking parenting leave. The value on the time trend was 67 ( t stat 4.3; P < .01), which means that, from 1994 to 2015, about 67 more men took paternity leave each month. No other coef fi cients were statistically signi fi cant in the paternity regressions. Trends in the percentage of workers receiving pay from their employer while on maternity or paternity leave are shown in Figure 1. Approximately half (48.3% overall average) of all employees on leave were paid for taking care of their newborn children, which means that 51.7% of workers on parental leave were unpaid. There was a lower overall average rate (47.5%) of paid maternity leave than of paid paternity leave (66.1%). TABLE 2 Marital Status, Race, Ethnicity, and Education of US Women on Maternity Leave and Birth Mothers: 1994 2015 Characteristic Mothers on Maternity Leave, % Mothers Giving Birth, % Difference, Percentage Points P a Married 75.5 63.3 +12.2 < .01 Race/ethnicity Non-Hispanic White 68.8 56.5 +12.3 < .01 Non-Hispanic Black 12.5 14.7 2.3 < .01 Hispanic 12.0 21.7 9.7 < .01
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