Worker attitudes towards turnover unions absenteeism Globally cultures have

Worker attitudes towards turnover unions absenteeism

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Worker attitudes towards turnover, unions, absenteeism Globally cultures have different attitudes towards punctuality, legal, and ethical issues. Clustering of Companies Wine making: Napa Valley (US) Bordeaux region (France) Natural resources of land and climate Software firms: Silicon Valley, Boston, Bangalore (India) Talent resources of bright graduates in scientific/technical areas, venture capitalists nearby Race car builders: Huntington/North Hampton region (England) Critical mass of talent and information Break-Even Analysis: Total cost = Fixed costs + (Variable cost x Volume) Layout Strategy Layout Design Considerations Higher utilization of space, equipment, and people. Improved flow of information, materials, or people Improved employee morale and safer working conditions Improved customer/client interaction Flexibility Types of Layout Office layout: positions workers, their equipment, and spaces/offices to provide for movement of information Retail layout: Allocates shelf space and responds to customer behavior Warehouse layout: Addresses trade-offs between space and material handling. Fixed-position layout: Addresses the layout requirements of large, bulkt projects such as ships and buildings Process-oriented layout: Deals with low-volume, high-variety production (also called job shop or intermittent production) Good Layouts consider Material handling equipment Capacity and space requirements Environment and aesthetics Flows of information Cost of moving between various work areas Supermarket retail layout: Objective is to maximize profitability per square foot of floor space Sales and profitability vary directly with customer exposure Servicescapes Ambient conditions - background characteristics such as lighting, sound, smell, and temperature Spatial layout and functionality - which involve customer circulation path planning, aisle characteristics, and product grouping Sign, symbols, and artifacts - characteristics of building design that carry social significance Work Cells Reorganizes people and machines into groups to focus on single products or product groups Group technology identifies products that have similar characteristics for particular cells Volume must justify cells Cells can be reconfigured as designs or volume changes Advantages of Work Cells Reduced work-in-process inventory Less floor space required Reduced raw material material and finished goods inventory Reduced direct labor Heightened sense of employee participation Increased used of equipment and machinery Reduced investment in machinery and equipment Designing for Goods and Services Product Decision The good or service the organization provides society Top organizations typically focus on core products Customers buy satisfaction, not just a physical good or particular service Fundamental to an organization’s strategy with implications throughout the operations function Product Strategy Options Differentiation Low cost Rapid response Product Life Cycles May be any length from a few hours to decades The operations function must be able to introduce new products successfully Maturity Phase: Competitors now established
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  • Fall '16
  • Product life cycle management

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