In the affective domain the evidence is even stronger The basic emotion that

In the affective domain the evidence is even stronger

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In the affective domain, the evidence is even stronger. The basic emotion that has been researched most extensively is disgust, which is relatively easy to trigger in the laboratory. Wicker et al. (2003) found an overlap in activation between scenarios where subjects experienced foul odors and when they saw others sniffing the same foul odors. That this overlap is essential for understanding that the target person is experiencing disgust is implied by the fact that two subjects who cannot experience disgust because of a lesion in IFO are also impaired in their ability to recognize disgust in others (Adolphs et al. 2003). Pain has also been studied relatively extensively. Numerous studies have shown that the same areas are activated in third-person scenarios. For example, Singer et al. (2004)
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found this sort of affect mirroring when subjects were informed via a symbol on a screen that their romantic partner was receiving a painful stimulus (note that they observed neither the pain-inducing event nor the facial expression of pain. 3. Mirror Neuron Systems and Simulation Theory I have so far been discussing the first of the two claims set out in the introduction, i.e. that MNSs contribute to social cognition, and have defended the position that they are likely necessary but not sufficient. Now I will turn to the second claim, i.e. that the way in which they do so supports ST. 3.1 Varieties of Simulation Theory The common denominator of the various versions of ST is: predicting and/or understanding others’ actions and/or emotions involves undergoing (simulating) the same procedures that we would undergo if we ourselves were deciding upon, planning or executing an action in the same circumstances or experiencing the same emotion. In other words, the common ground shared by all versions of ST is to predict the kind of first-/ third-person matching relation that MNSs appear to constitute. Note that there is no version of ST that merely asserts such a matching relation and leaves it at that. All versions indeed make room for concepts to be involved (although they differ about whether mental concepts are prerequisites to simulation), and also include an account of ascription, i.e. how the simulated mental processes are separated from one’s own mental processes and understood to refer to the observed agent. Hence, neither Goldman nor Gordon has any problem with MNSs being insufficient, i.e. with other brain areas being involved in social cognition in addition to MNSs. The question I will focus on addresses their common ground: do MNSs really instantiate the right kind of matching relation to support ST? 3.2 ST and MNSs To address this question, let me start by calling attention to a specific feature of the prediction of a matching relation between first-and third-person scenarios. ST predicts that predicting or understanding someone else's actions (or emotions) involves undergoing some of the same first-
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order states and processes as one would undergo if one were planning/carrying out the same action (having the same emotion , etc.) as the person being observed. This is in fact a more specific claim
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