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Jumpers are small pins on the board with plastic or

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Jumpers are small pins on the board with plastic or metal devices that go over the pins. Thisdevice is called a bridge. When the bridge is connected to any two pins via a shorting link, itcompletes the circuit and a certain configuration has been achieved.Both DIP switches and jumpers store configuration settings of a specific component e.g.CMOS. In case you forget your power-on password you need to short the CMOS jumper toerase the password.Most jumper settings and DIP switches are done manually.MotherboardsPage 3
Chapter 2Main Memory (RAM)Random Access Memory is the working space for all programs and data.Most modern PCs have at least 16MB RAM and other computers now have 64 MB upwards.Most PC memory is socketed to make it easily upgradeable although on some motherboardsyou will find some RAM fixed directly on to the board.Memory is packaged in the form of SIMM (Single Inline Memory Module) or DIMM (DualInline Memory Module) modules.MOTHERBOARD FORM FACTORSThe Form Factor of the motherboard describes its shape, physical layout and the type ofcase and power supply that can be used. For example, a company can make twomotherboards that have the same functionality but use a different form factor. The only majordifference will be the layout of the components on the motherboard.The most common form factors found in modern PCs are:AT and Baby ATATX and Mini ATXLPX and Mini LPXNLXStyleWidthDepthWhere FoundMatch to Case andPower SupplyFull AT12”11-13”Very old PCsFull AT, Full TowerBaby AT8.5”10-13”Older PCsAll but Slimline, ATXATX12”9.6”Newer PCsATXMini ATX11.2”8.2”Older retail PCsATXLPX9”11-13”SlimlineMotherboardsPage 4
Chapter 2NOTESMotherboardsPage 5
Chapter 2AT and Baby ATThe AT and Baby AT motherboards were the most common form factor of 1980 and early90’s. The difference between the two is primarily width; the Full AT board is 12” wide andtherefore will not fit into the mini-desktop or mini-tower cases.Baby AT motherboards can be recognized by theirshape and the presence of a single full-size keyboardconnector soldered on the board.Older AT and baby AT boards locate the processorsocket and the memory sockets at the front of themotherboard.The Baby AT motherboard is only 8.5” wide and thereduced width means much less overlap with the drivebays (although there is usually still some overlap at thefront of the case).With the BAT design the processor socket is located atthe front of the motherboard, and full-length expansioncards are intended to extend over it. This means thatremoving the processor requires the removal of someor all expansion cards first.Advantages of the Baby AT design1.The size of 8.5” by 10” makes it easier to design smaller desktop PCs, although theboard can be used in tower PCs and server etc.2.Most of the board is easily accessible for upgrades and expansion etc.

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Term
Spring
Professor
MR MWANGI
Tags
ATX

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