1.Descriptiona.What is out there?2.Explanation a.Why is it out there?When Science is sucked into politics, Science always loses. (Credibility) What is a scientific knowledge claim? Is it repeatable and replicable?How do scientific knowledge claims relate to truth? Without integrity, scientific knowledge claims hold no credibilityGeneralizability: Exists when a conclusion holds true for the population, group setting, or event that we say it does, given the conditions that we specify.Measurement validity: Exists when an indicator measures what we think it measuresSample generalizability: Exists when a conclusion based on a sample or subset of a larger population holds true forthat populationValidity: The state that exists when statements or conclusions about empirical reality are correct1.Measurement validity2.Generalizability3.Casual validityCHAPTER 2What is Social Theory? A set of interrelated constructs (concepts), definitions and propositions that presents a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among variables with the purpose of explaining and predicting the phenomena·Concept: A word that expresses an idea or abstractionoEx: Various observed behaviors are expressed in words (conformity, aggression, honesty, intelligence, motivation)·Construct: A concept which has been deliberately invented for a special purposeoSchool achievement in a function of intelligence and motivation·Variable: A symbol to which numerical or values are assignedoGrade point average, IQ scores, poverty rate, percentage homelessOperational definition: A definition that assigns meaning to a construct or variable by specifying the activities or operations necessary to measure the construct, concept, or variable.Indicators: Actual questions. Surveys.What is the role of theory in the research process? It teaches us to ask questions.What is deductive research?Empirical Social Reality> Hypothesis, Empirical Generalization> Middle Range Theory>Formal Theory (anomalous Confirmatory Serendipitous)Inductive research?Empirical Social reality> Concepts, Empirical Generalization> Middle Range Theory> Formal TheoryWhat role does inductive reasoning play in deductive reasoning? It can result in new insights and provocative questions. Also when we find unexpected patterns in data collected for testing a hypothesis.How are deductive and inductive research linked to theory? Deductive: starts with a theory, then testing some of its implications with data. Inductive: collecting the data and then developing a theory that describes them.When we say a relationship exists between two variables what do we mean? Change is one variable is related to change in another. Statistically significant.Why do researchers avoid using the term “proved” or “true” when testing a hypothesis? Because it is subjective, and cannot be proved until it goes through intensive examination and critique, it’s always according to the specific instance that is being studied.
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- Summer '19