38.Factors affecting personal hygienea.Cultureb.Socioeconomic classc.Spiritual practicesd.Developmental levele.Health statef.Personal Preferences39.Functional ability vs disabilitya.disability refers to varying degrees of an individual's inability to perform the tasks required to complete normal life activities without assistance.40.Providing Perineal Carea.Assemble supplies, and provide for privacy.b.Explain the procedure to the patient, perform hand hygiene, and put on disposable gloves.c.Wash and rinse the groin area (both male and female patients). Use a small amount of a mild nonsoap cleaning agent and water, or disposable cleaning cloths.d.For a female patient, spread the labia and move the washcloth from the pubic area toward the anal area to prevent carrying organisms from the anal area back over the genital area. Always proceed from the least contaminated area to the most contaminated area. Use a clean portion of the washcloth for each stroke. Rinse the washed areas well with plain water.e.For a male patient, clean the tip of the penis first, moving the washcloth in a circular motion from the meatus outward. Wash the shaft of the penis using downward strokes toward the pubic area. Always proceed from the least contaminated area to the most contaminated area. Rinse the washedareas well with plain water. In an uncircumcised male patient(teenage or older), retract the foreskin (prepuce) while washing the penis. Pull the uncircumcised male patient’s foreskin back into place over the glans penis to prevent constriction of the penis, which may result in edema and tissue injury. It is not recommended to retract the foreskin for cleaning during infancy and
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childhood, as injury and scarring could occur. Wash and rinse the male patient’s scrotum. Handle the scrotum, which houses the testicles, with care because the area is sensitive.f.Dry the cleaned areas and apply an emollient as indicated. Avoid the use of powder. Powder may become a medium for the growth of bacteria.g.Turn the patient on his or her side and continue with cleansing the anal area. Continue in the direction of least contaminated to most contaminated area. In the female, cleanse from the vagina toward the anus. In both female and male patients, change the part of the washcloth being used with each stroke until the area is clean. Rinse and dry the area.
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