4 b no in order to be deductively valid it must be

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4. b) No. In order to be deductively valid, it must be impossible for the conclusion to be false and the premises true. For this argument, it is possible that all three premises are true and yet the conclusion (“That’s ridiculous”) is false. Even a milder conclusion, such as “That’s not true,” could still be false. All Dorothea provides are reasons that make the conclusion more likely, not ones that guarantee it. See pp. 60–61. 5. a) Yes. Premises are relevant to the conclusion if they make it more likely to be true. In this case, the premises do seem to be ones that improve the chances that “That’s ridiculous” is true. Premises are sufficient for the conclusion if, given the nature of the conclusion, they provide enough evidence. In this case, this doesn’t seem to be true. After all, it’s a very strong statement to call something ridiculous. We would thus expect some pretty substantial evidence, and what’s given here just isn’t enough. Therefore, this argument is a moderately strong non-deductive argument. See pp. 62–64. Passage 6 1. a) Yes. An argument is contextually relevant if it fits within the context established by previous conservation or dialectic. This argument directly responds to Cornelius’s first argument—in fact, it responds to every point he makes. Thus, it is contextually relevant. See pp. 65–71. 2. b) No. A premise is acceptable if the arguer does not have to bear the burden of proof, or, if the arguer does, then they do so successfully. In this case, given the second argument that Dorothea made, it’s unlikely that this premise will be acceptable to her without some sort of an argument for it, so Cornelius bears the burden of proof. However, he does not do so successfully because he gives no evidence for this premise, so it is not acceptable. See pp. 52–56. 3. a) Yes. A premise is acceptable if the arguer does not have to bear the burden of proof, or, if the arguer does, then they do so successfully. In this case, it seems likely that Dorothea would accept the premise. Given what we know about her views from the second argument, it seems unlikely that she would dispute it, so it is acceptable. See pp. 52–56. 4. b) No. In order to be deductively valid, it must be impossible for the conclusion to be false and the premises true. For this argument, even if all the premises are true, it is still possible that the conclusion (“I’m still not convinced we should move in together”) is not. After all, there may be other reasons that favour moving in together. See pp. 60–61. 5. a) Yes. Premises are relevant to the conclusion if they make it more likely to be true. In this case, both premises seem relevant to the conclusion (“I’m still not convinced we should move in together”). Premises are sufficient for the conclusion if, given the nature of the conclusion, they provide enough evidence. In this case, they do not seem to be. The conclusion is quite a strong one, and it therefore requires strong evidence. While Cornelius is still offering more evidence than was given in his first argument, it’s unlikely that Dorothea will find it satisfactory. Therefore, this argument is a moderately strong non-deductive argument. See pp. 62–64.
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Good Reasoning Matters! A Constructive Approach to Critical Thinking
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