Ego self reality principle governs the id and the

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EGO – ‘self” reality principle – governs the ID and the superego “executive” Superego – morality principle - root of conscience, internal parent Sigmund Freud’s – 5 Stages of Psychosexual 1. Oral stage - birth to 1yr, feeding, sucking and noise making 2. Anal stage – 1-3 yrs – focused on eliminating and retaining feces 3. Phallic stage – 4-6 yrs – pleasure genitals, identify with same sex parent 4. Latency stage – 6-12 yrs – developing social skills 5. Genital stage – 12 yrs to 18yrs – sexual urges awakened Sigmund Freud – Developmental Theory Eros – represents the life instincts from libido Thanatos – represents the death instinct o Opposing instincts Psychodynamic (Freudian) treatment relies heavily on understanding early life experiences and conflicts, and uncovering the roots of unconscious motivation Neo-Freudians – Psychoanalysts who moved away from Freud’s theories Freud would not allow disagreement with the basic ideas of his theory Analytical Psychology – created by Carl Jung Variation of psychoanalytic theory (Freud)
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o Student of Freud who parted ways More positive about one’s ability to control his or her destiny Associated with Collective Unconscious SENSORY ADAPTATION – when exposed to a stimulus that doesn’t change over time. (Example: someone with strong perfume, over time the perfume isn’t noticeable) Developmental psychology – physical and psychological development from birth to death. Researchers search for biological and environmental influences on patterns of growth and development Psychometric Tests – tests used to measure intelligence and ability Often used by employers Experimental Psychology – researchers use experimental or scientific procedures to discover behavior Naturalistic Observation – watching behavior, without outside influence by the observer People or animals are observed in their natural environment o Example: observing Lions in Africa, instead of in the zoo. Observer bias – when an observer allows their own motives to interfere with observations Observational psychology – relationships between responses (called R-R) Extraneous variables – referred to as “control variable” because they are the factor that needs to be controlled Clinical psychology – concern is well-being of the individual Comparative Psychology - Psychologists who are interested in behavioral similarities and differences between species Industrial and organizational psychologists - work with management and staff in the world of business. Nomothetics – study that seeks to find commonality of all people Correlation method= statistical procedure to tell if two observations are related to each other Actor-Observer Bias- tendency for individuals to view their own behavior as situational, but view others behavior as internally caused Self-Serving Bias – people take responsibility for success, and blame others or circumstances for failures
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