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Depending on the source of your support all the

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Depending on the source of your support, all the following information could be useful: name of source,location of source, date of source, name of author, and identification of author. First, you need to tellyour audience the name of your source. Whether you are using a song or an article from a magazine,you need to tell your audience the name of the person who wrote it and its title. Second, if your sourcecomes from a larger work, you need to include the location of the source. For example, a single article(name of source) may come from a magazine (the location). Third, you need to specify the date of thesource. Depending on the type of source you are using, you may need to provide just a year or the dayand month as well. You should provide as much information on the date as is provided on the copyrightinformation page of the source.Thus far we’ve talked only about the information you need to provide specifically about the source; let’snow switch gears and talk about the author. When discussing the author, you need to clearly explain notonly who the author is but also why the author is an expert (if appropriate). Some sources are written byauthors who are not experts, so you really don’t need to explain their expertise. In other cases, your audi-ence will already know why the source is an expert, so there is less need to explain why the source is anStandup,Speakout 232
expert. For example, if giving a speech on current politics in the United States, you probably do not needto explain the expertise of Barack Obama or John Boehner. However, when you don’t provide informa-tion on an author’s expertise and your audience does not already know why the source is an expert, youraudience will question the validity of your support.Now that we’ve explained the basic information necessary for using support within a speech, here aretwo different examples:1.According to Melanie Smithfield in an article titled “Do It Right, or Do It Now,” published inthe June 18, 2009, issue ofTime Magazine2.According to Roland Smith, a legendary civil rights activist and former chair of the CivilRights Defense League, in his 2001 bookThe Path of PeaceIn the first example we have an author who wrote an article in a magazine, and in the second one wehave an author of a book. In both cases, we provided the information that was necessary to understandwhere the source was located. The more information we can provide our audiences about our support,the more information our audiences have to evaluate the strength of our arguments.ExecutionOnce we have set up the support, the second part of using support is what we call execution. Theexe-cutionof support involves actually reading a quotation, paraphrasing a speaker or author’s words, sum-marizing a speaker or author’s ideas, providing numerical support, or showing pictographic support.

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