102 related aspects it is well known that textiles

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10.2 Related Aspects It is well known that textiles are a suitable substrate for the growth of microor- ganisms, particularly at appropriate humidity and temperature in contact with human body. The increasing public awareness on hygiene has prompted many investigations on antimicrobial agents for textiles. These agents are used to prevent serious undesirable effects on textile materials, such as degradation of colouring, staining and deterioration of the fi bres, formation of unpleasant odour, increasing potential health risks (Dastjerdi et al. 2009 , 2010 ; Hasebe et al. 2001 ; Bagherzadeh Advances in Nanotextile Finishes An Approach Towards Sustainability 37
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et al. 2007 ; Montazer and Afjeh 2007 ; Gao and Cranston 2008 ). A proposal of hygienic living standard by controlling the microorganisms is necessary. Researchers have focused on the antibacterial and antifungal modi fi cations of textiles (Ladhari et al. 2007 ; Nakashima et al. 2001 ; Perelshtein et al. 2008 ; Shin et al. 1999 ; Yang et al. 2003 ; El-Sayed et al. 2010 , 2012 ; Kantouch and El-Sayed 2008 ; Kantouch et al. 2013 ; Mekewi et al. 2012 ; Fu et al. 2005 ); by application of inorganic nanotechnology (Wong et al. 2006b ; Daoud and Xin 2004 ; Daoud et al. 2005 ; Li et al. 2007 ; Tong et al. 2003 ; Ki et al. 2007 ; Liu et al. 2008 ; Parikh et al. 2005 ). As most textile fabrics would undergo repeated laundering during their lifetime, the washing durability of nanometal-treated fabric is of signi fi cant importance. Polycarboxylic acids are multi-functional organic molecules with chemical and thermal stability (Bendak et al. 2008 ; Salama et al. 2011 ). Polycarboxylic acids could form ester linkage with hydroxyl groups of cellulosic fabrics at elevated temperature above 160 °C (Barari et al. 2009 ). They have also been used to improve the adhesion of the inorganic organic interface (Huang et al. 2011 ). The present work is aimed at preparing permanent antimicrobial viscose fabrics by fi xation of propionic acid groups at lower temperature (below 100 °C), as active centres, onto the cellulosic polymeric chain. In the case of certain oxides like titanium oxide, zinc oxide, or aluminium oxide nanoparticles, the added carboxylic groups can possibly act as favourable centres. The antimicrobial ef fi ciency with regard to the durable performance against selected microorganisms onto modi fi ed textile has also been evaluated. 10.3 Technical Details Plain weave scoured 100 % viscose fabric has been used. The chemicals used have been of laboratory grade and include 3-bromopropionic acid (97 %), aluminium oxide nanopowder (particle size 50 nm), zinc oxide nanopowder (particle size 50 nm), and titanium (IV) oxide nanopowder (particle size 70 nm) (El-Sayeed et al. 2015 ). The fabric treatment involved two steps pretreatment of viscose fabric with 3-bromopropionic acid, followed by treatment with metal nanopowder (aluminium oxide, zinc oxide or titanium (IV) oxide nanopowder suspensions). The following studies have been carried out (a) FTIR (b) TEM (c) Antibacterial and antifungal activities (d) Wash fastness (e) Elution of metalized viscose samples Amounts of the eluted metal ion were measured using atomic absorption spectrometer.
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  • Fall '19
  • N. Gokarneshan

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