The former employee has done a nice job of keeping track of the accounting

The former employee has done a nice job of keeping

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The former employee has done a nice job of keeping track of the accounting records, so you can focus on your first task of creating the June financial statements, which Chuck is eager to see. Figure 2.6 shows the financial information (as of June 30) for Cheesy Chuck’s. Figure 2.6 Trial Balance for Cheesy Chuck’s Classic Corn. Accountants record and summarize accounting information into accounts, which help to track, summarize, and prepare accounting information. This table is a variation of what accountants call a “trial balance.” A trial balance is a summary of accounts and aids accountants in creating financial statements. (attribution: Copyright Rice University, OpenStax, under CC BY- NC-SA 4.0 license) Chapter 2 Introduction to Financial Statements 83
We should note that we are oversimplifying some of the things in this example. First, the amounts in the accounting records were given. We did not explain how the amounts would be derived. This process is explained starting in Analyzing and Recording Transactions . Second, we are ignoring the timing of certain cash flows such as hiring, purchases, and other startup costs. In reality, businesses must invest cash to prepare the store, train employees, and obtain the equipment and inventory necessary to open. These costs will precede the selling of goods and services. In the example to follow, for instance, we use Lease payments of $24,000, which represents lease payments for the building ($20,000) and equipment ($4,000). In practice, when companies lease items, the accountants must determine, based on accounting rules, whether or not the business “owns” the item. If it is determined the business “owns” the building or equipment, the item is listed on the balance sheet at the original cost. Accountants also take into account the building or equipment’s value when the item is worn out. The difference in these two values (the original cost and the ending value) will be allocated over a relevant period of time. As an example, assume a business purchased equipment for $18,000 and the equipment will be worth $2,000 after four years, giving an estimated decline in value (due to usage) of $16,000 ($18,000 − $2,000). The business will allocate $4,000 of the equipment cost over each of the four years ($18,000 minus $2,000 over four years). This is called depreciation and is one of the topics that is covered in Long-Term Assets . Also, the Equipment with a value of $12,500 in the financial information provided was purchased at the end of the first accounting period. It is an asset that will be depreciated in the future, but no depreciation expense is allocated in our example. Income Statement Let’s prepare the income statement so we can inform how Cheesy Chuck’s performed for the month of June (remember, an income statement is for a period of time ). Our first step is to determine the value of goods and services that the organization sold or provided for a given period of time. These are the inflows to the business, and because the inflows relate to the primary purpose of the business (making and selling popcorn), we classify those items as Revenues, Sales, or Fees Earned. For this example, we use Revenue. The revenue for

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