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Genetic testing may be important for future determination, but it does not confirm the diagnosis.
Glycosylated testing measures glucose control over time.REF:p. 18 | p. 435 | p. 46230.An 11-year-old male is newly diagnosed with type 1 DM. Which classic symptoms should the nurse assess the patient for?a.Recurrent infections, visual changes, fatigue, and paresthesiasb.Polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, and weight lossc.Vomiting; abdominal pain; sweet, fruity breath; dehydration; and Kussmaul breathingd.Weakness, vomiting, hypotension, and mental confusionANS:BClassic symptoms of type 1 DM include polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, and weight loss.Recurrent infections and visual changes are complications of diabetes.Vomiting, abdominal pain, and sweet breath are signs of diabetic ketoacidosis.Weakness, hypotension, and mental confusion are signs of hypoglycemia.REF:p. 46131.A 19-year-old female with type 1 DM was admitted to the hospital with altered consciousness and the following lab values: serum glucose 500 mg/dl (high) and serum K+2 (low). Her parents state that she has been sick with the “flu” for a week. The diagnosis is hyperosmolar hyperglycemia nonketotic syndrome (HHNKS). What relationship do these values have with her insulin deficiency?a.Increased glucose utilization causes the shift of fluid from the intravascular to the
intracellular space.b.Decreased insulin causes hyperglycemia and osmotic diuresis.c.Increased glucose and fatty acid metabolism stimulates renal diuresis and electrolyte loss.d.Increased insulin use results in protein catabolism, tissue wasting, and electrolyte loss.ANS:BBecause the amount of insulin required to inhibit fat breakdown is less than that needed for effective glucose transport, insulin levels are sufficient to prevent excessive lipolysis and ketosis.Volume is depleted, not increased.Electrolyte loss does occur, but it is not due to fatty acids and glucose metabolism, it is due to insufficient insulin.Insulin is decreased, not increased.REF:p. 46532.A nurse is reviewing lab results for glycosylated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c) levels. A nurse recalls the purpose of this test is to:a.Measure fasting glucose levels.b.Monitor long-term serum glucose control.c.Detect acute complications of diabetes.d.Check for hyperlipidemia.ANS:BGlycosylated hemoglobin refers to the permanent attachment of glucose to hemoglobin molecules and reflects the average plasma glucose exposure over the life of a red blood cell (approximately 120 days).
Glycosylated hemoglobin does not measure fasting, but glucose control over time.Glycosylated hemoglobin does not identify complications, but could provide data if the patient isat risk.Glycosylated does not check for hyperlipidemia.REF:p. 45933.When a patient asks what causes hyperglycemia in type 2 DM, how should the nurse respond?