Test 1 Notes Compilation CogPsych.docx

Shape constancy o invariant shape despite rotation

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Shape Constancy o Invariant shape despite rotation Brightness constancy o Invariant brightness despite changes in reflected light intensity o Based on albedo (ratio of light from a source that is reflected back by an object) Conclusion: perception is computational o Helmholtz’s unconscious inference Perceptual illusions: perception is “dumb” Even when we know the horizontal bars are the same length, we still perceive them as unequal Perception is “encapsulated” – isolated from our general knowledge o Perception does not have access to everything we know, so it is “dumb” Fodor’s Modularity Hypothesis Perception is both “smart” (computational” and “Dumb” (encapsulated) It must be smart because computation is required to determine the properties of the distal stimulus from the proximal stimulus o The proximal stimulus can be in a constant state of flux even when the distal stimulus is unchanging o Multiple sources of information must be combined to properly perceive the distal stimulus (e.g. retinal image size and distance) It is dumb because it must be fast and mandatory o Survival may depend of speed and truthfulness Accessing our general knowledge may take too long Being influenced by what we would life or desire to perceive might be maladaptive Perception must report presence of a predator even if the animal would prefer for there not to be one there
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CogPsych Notes 9.27.17
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Perception Perceptual Constancies: perception is “smart” Size Constancy (a demonstration) o =/= retinal image size o Uses depth cues (monocular and binocular) Linear perspective, height in visual field, motion parallax, etc. Shape constancy o Invariant shape despite rotation Brightness constancy o Invariant brightness despite changes in reflected light intensity o Based on albedo (ratio of light from a source that is reflected back by an object) Conclusion: perception is computational o Helmholtz’s unconscious inference Fodor’s Modularity Hypothesis (1982) Perception is both “smart” (computational) and “dumb” (encapsulated) It must be smart because computation is required to determine the properties of the distal stimulus from the proximal stimulus o The proximal stimulus can be in a constant state of flux even when the distal stimulus is unchanging o Multiple source of information must be combined to properly perceive the distal stimulus (e.g., retinal image size and distance) It is dumb because it must be fast and mandatory o Survival may depend on speed and truthfulness Accessing out general knowledge may take too long Being influenced by what we would like or desire to perceive might be maladaptive Perception must report presence of a predator even if the animal would prefer for there not to be one there Configural Superiority effects Experiments on the emergence of perceptual effects due to context Set of gestalt-type phenomena Research participant’s task o Identify the quadrant of the stimulus that is different from the others o Dependent variable: reaction time (RT) to perform the task Bottom-up vs. Top-down Processing Bottom-up o “data-driven” o
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