Occurs in our brain when information from sensory

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occurs in our brain when information from sensory organs are interpreted through a set of mental operations that organize sensory impulses into meaningful patterns.
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Feature Detectors - Neurons in the visual cortex that respond selectively to particular kinds of stimuli - For example: Lines of different orientations Lines moving in particular directions - Note: some cells in the temporal cortex respond just to faces Feature Analysis - Assembling the basic elemental features of visual inputs into more complex forms - Considered to be a form of bottom-up processing (from the parts to the whole) - Not the whole story; We also use higher cognitive processes to interpret what we see Our brain fills in what is not there to make sense of it Gestalt Psychology - The basis of this theory: the whole is greater than the sum of the parts - We perceive objects by paying attention to the way elements in the world are organized in relation to one another Subjective (Illusory) Contours: perceiving contours/edges where none exist; shows how perception is about more than just sensing visual stimuli. Closure: tend to see complete figures even when part of the image is missing. Figure vs. Ground - Edges; detected by sudden changes in brightness, color, or texture - Continuous boundaries suggest figures - Camouflage : Nature’s way of taking advantage of the difficulty of detecting objects when the figure cannot be distinguished from the ground Reversible Images - Even where there are continuous boundaries and clear images, we can still run into problems if there is more than one possible interpretation of the picture Similarity - Things which share visual characteristics such as shapes, size, color, texture, value or orientation will be seen as belonging together Proximity - Things which are within close proximity will be seen as belonging together Common Movement (Common Fate) - Objects that are moving together in the same direction at the same speed are seen as part of the same object (ex. Birds flocking) Depth Perception
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- Binocular cues Retinal disparity Convergence - Monocular cues Motion parallax Pictorial cues - Retinal (Binocular) Disparity Objects project images to slightly different locations on the right and left retinas The closer the object, the greater the disparity between the two eyes Convergence - Inward turning of the eyes as we focus on closer objects Motion Parallax - Closer objects appear to move faster than farther objects Pictorial Cues - Cues about distance that can be given in a flat picture: Linear perspective Interposition Texture gradient Height in horizontal plane Relative size Clarity (atmospheric haze) Light and shadow Perceptual Constancy - Our perceptions of objects remain constant even as the conditions under which we view them change Size constancy Shape constancy Color constancy Auditory Transduction (Summary) - From sound wave to neural impulse: 1. Sound waves enter ear and travel through auditory canal to eardrum (tympanic membrane) 2.
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