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the three most common types of poemsaccording to form:1. Lyric Poetry:It is any poem with one speaker (not necessarily the poet) who expresses strong thoughts and feelings. Most poems, especially modern ones, are lyric poems. 2. Narrative Poem:It is a poem that tells a story; its structure resembles the plot line of a story [i.e. the introduction of conflict and characters, rising action,climax and the denouement].3. Descriptive Poem:It is a poem that describes the worldthat surrounds the speaker. It uses elaborate imagery and adjectives. While emotional, it is more "outward-focused" than lyric poetry, which is more personal and introspective. In a sense, almost all poems, whether they have consistent patterns of sound and/or structure, or are free verse, are in one of the three categories above. Or, of course, they may be a combination of 2 or 3 of the above styles! Here are some more types of poems that are subtypes of the three styles above:Ode: It is usually a lyricpoem of moderate length, with a serious subject, an elevated style, and an elaborate stanza pattern.Elegy: It is a lyricpoem that mourns the dead. [It's not to be confused with a eulogy.]It has no set metric or stanzaic pattern, but it usually begins by reminiscing about the dead person, then laments the reason for the death, and then resolves the grief by concluding that death leads to immortality. It often uses "apostrophe" (calling out to the dead person) as a literary technique. It can have a fairly formal style, and sound similar to an ode.Sonnet: It is a lyricpoem consisting of 14 lines and, in the English version, is usually written in iambic pentameter. There are two basic kinds of sonnets: theItalian (or Petrarchan) sonnet and the Shakespearean (or Elizabethan/English) sonnet. The Italian/Petrarchan sonnet is named after Petrarch, an Italian Renaissance poet. The Petrarchan sonnet consists of an octave (eight lines) and a sestet (six lines). The Shakespearean sonnet consists of three quatrains (four lines each) and a concluding couplet (two lines). The Petrarchan sonnet tends to divide the thought into two parts
(argument and conclusion); the Shakespearean, into four (the final couplet is the summary).6 5Epic: It is a long narrativepoem in elevated style recounting the deeds of a legendary or historical hero. Qualities of an Epic Poem:narrative poem of great scope; dealing with the founding of a nation or some other heroic themerequires a dignified themerequires an organic unityrequires orderly progress of the actionalways has a heroic figure or figuresinvolves supernatural forceswritten in deliberately ceremonial styleOther types of poems include:Haiku: It has an unrhymedverse form having three lines (a tercet) and usually 5,7,5 syllables, respectively. It's usually considered a lyric poem.Limerick: It has a very structured poem, usually humorous & composed of fivelines (a cinquain), in an aabbarhyming pattern; beat must be anapestic(weak, weak, strong) with 3 feet in lines 1, 2, & 5 and 2 feet in lines 3 & 4. It's usually a narrative poem based upon a short and often ribald anecdote.