Q14 maize contains the vitamin niacin but not in a

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Q14: Maize contains the vitamin niacin, but not in a form the body can absorb. Pellagra is a disease that results from niacin deficiency. When maize was introduced into southern Europe from the Americas in the eighteenth century, it quickly became a dietary staple, and many Europeans who came to subsist primarily on maize developed pellagra. Pellagra was virtually unknown at that time in the Americas, however, even among people who subsisted primarily on maize. Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the contrasting incidence of pellagra described above? A. Once introduced into southern Europe, maize became popular with landowners because of its high yields relative to other cereal crops. 18
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B. Maize grown in the Americas contained more niacin than maize grown in Europe did. C. Traditional ways of preparing maize in the Americas convert maize’s niacin into a nutritionally useful form. D. In southern Europe many of the people who consumed maize also ate niacin-rich foods. E. Before the discovery of pellagra’s link with niacin, it was widely believed that the disease was an infection that could be transmitted from person to person. Answer: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Q15: Concerns about public health led to the construction between 1876 and 1904 of three separate sewer systems to serve metropolitan Boston. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Q16 to Q19: In 1675, Louis XIV established the Parisian seamstresses’ guild, the first Line independent all-female guild (5) created in over 200 years. Guild members could make and sell women’s and chil- dren’s clothing, but were prohibited from producing (10) men’s clothing or dresses for court women. Tailors resented the ascension of seamstresses to guild status; seamstresses, meanwhile, (15) were impatient with the remaining restrictions on their right to clothe women. The conflict between the guilds was not purely 19
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(20) economic, however. A 1675 police report indicated that since so many seamstresses were already working illegally, the tailors were unlikely to (25) suffer additional economic damage because of the seamstresses’ incorporation. Moreover, guild membership held very different meanings (30) for tailors and seamstresses. To the tailors, their status as guild members overlapped with their role as heads of household, and entitled them (35) to employ as seamstresses female family members who did not marry outside the trade.
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