Substitution of German and other vernacular languages for Latin Reduction in

Substitution of german and other vernacular languages

This preview shows page 15 - 18 out of 43 pages.

Substitution of German and other vernacular languages for Latin Reduction in the number of sacraments from seven to two: Baptism and the Eucharist Continues to believe in transubstantiation: Christ was really present in the consecrated bread and wine of the Mass However, did not view not as a miracle, but only through one’s faith could this happen. The Church Hierarchy Those who served the church had no supernatural authority Ministers or pastors rather than priests Abolish the entire ecclesiastical hierarchy Minister could and should marry 1525: Luther took a wife, Katharina von Bora
Image of page 15
E. THE BREAK WITH ROME How Did the Printing Press Cause the Reformation? Luther’s polemical pamphlets were disseminated by the printing press Were written in a highly colloquial German Become a publishing sensation: first run of “ To the Christian Nobility” (1520) was 4000 units Even more popular were the woodcut illustrations mocking the papacy Criticism of the Papacy Luther’s denunciations expressed a widespread public dissatisfaction with the corruption of the papacy Pope Alexanders VI (1492-1503): bribed cardinals and supported the militarily campaigns of his illegitimate sob Julius II (1503-1513): enlarged the Papal states Leo X (1513-1521): member od the Medici family, an able administrator The Papacy and Germany Germany: no special agreements- concordats- limiting papal authority in its principalities Papal taxes were high Germans had almost no influence over the papal policy and Pope were almost always Italian Theologians from German universities almost never found employments in Rome, and many joined Luther, becoming the leaders of the new religious movements. The Pope’s Condemnations of Luther 1520: Leo X issued a papal edict condemning Luther’s publication as heretical Luther stages a public burning of the documents Was turned over for punishments to his overlord Frederick III “the Wise” of Saxony Frederick declared that Luther had not received a fair hearing Brought him to a place for a hearing Emperor Charles V Diets president’s officer was the newly elected Hole Roman Emperor, Charles V. From 1521 he was; o Ruler of the Netherlands o King of Germany and the HRE o Duke of Austria, and Milan o Ruler of Burgundy Franch-Comte o King of Spain o King of Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia o Ruler of all Spanish possessions in the New World o Charles’s empire had no capitals and no centralised administrative institution, the only thing that connected the whole empire was the church The Condemnations at the Worms Charles V was a faithful servant of the church Could not tolerate the prospect of heresy within his Empire Thus, there was little doubt that the Diet of Worms would condemned Martin Luther Lord Frederick the Wise arranged for Luther to be kidnapped and hidden in the castle of Wartburg 1522: Luther retuned in triumphs to Wittenberg Even German princes converted to Lutheranism In a little over a decade a new form to Christianity had been developed
Image of page 16
Image of page 17
Image of page 18

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 43 pages?

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture