2 The need for mutual defense due to the security threats often faced by the

2 the need for mutual defense due to the security

This preview shows page 8 - 13 out of 23 pages.

autonomous power (there is a balance of power). 2. The need for mutual defense due to the security threats often faced by the country. 3. The willingness of federation to work together economically , especially on national development. 4. There is a wise leadership and negotiable force to ensure the smooth and orderly operation of the system. 5. Socio-cultural equality such as language, race and religion.
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Federalism: Failure 1. Nonconformity factor : can occur in two conditions ie between two levels of government ( vertical ) and between the states themselves ( horizontally ). Examples of incompatibilities exist between India and Pakistan in terms of religious differences resulting in the breakup of these two regions. 2. Language and cultural issues : Problems will be complicated when the language and culture of one's state is very dominant in federation. 3. Geographical factors : Jamaica's example came out of the Trinidad alliance (1956) and the case of West Pakistan and East Pakistan (Bangladesh) due to a distance of 1000 miles.
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4. Ethnic Diversity : Conflicts will exist when the power of government is dominated by one race. This dominance of power will cause the state in the federation to lose confidence and trust in the federal government and encourage them to demand independence independently. Examples of Yugoslavia territorial division in 1990: a dispute between Serbia and Croatia. 5. Power imbalances : will cause the states not to be satisfied and create protests and demands. Examples of Jamaica is more powerful than Trinidad's central government.
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6. Imbalance economic development between regions : Occurs when the developed region feels unhappy and loses its economic benefits to the backward region. To avoid this partnership, some states want to be free because they want to safeguard their economic interests. Nigeria's example: oil rich Eastern Nigeria claims its right from federal government due to imbalance development received from the federal.
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The Relationship Between Federal & State Government In Malaysia the division of power between the federal government and the state government is stipulated in the provisions of the Federal Constitution. There are three lists of lists in the Ninth Schedule of the Federal Constitution which distribute this power, namely: 1. List I (Federal List) - contains 27 jurisdictions in the constitution. 2. List II (State List) - contains 12 jurisdictions in the constitution.
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