Collecting duct Descending limb of nephron loop Cortex Outer medulla Urea Inner

Collecting duct descending limb of nephron loop

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Collecting ductDescending limbof nephron loopCortexOutermedullaUreaInnermedullaSmall volume ofconcentrated urineOsmolality of interstitial fluid (mOsm)UreaDCTDCT100100100300100600900400700100300300600900Urea12001001200120012004007003006009009006004003003001001503006009001200300Urea contributes tothe osmotic gradient. ADH increases its recycling.
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Physical Characteristics of UrineColor and transparencyClear, pale to deep yellow (due to urochrome)Concentrated urine has a deeper yellow colorDrugs, vitamin supplements, and diet can change the color of urineCloudy urine may indicate infection of the urinary tract
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Physical Characteristics of UrineOdorFresh urine is slightly aromaticStanding urine develops an ammonia odorSome drugs and vegetables (asparagus) alter the usual odorpH Slightly acidic (pH 6) with a range of 4.5 to 8.0Diet can alter pHSpecific gravityRanges from 1.001 to 1.035 Is dependent on solute concentration
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Chemical Composition of UrineUrine is 95% water and 5% solutesNitrogenous wastes: urea, uric acid, and creatinineOther normal solutes include:Sodium, potassium, phosphate, and sulfate ionsCalcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate ions Abnormally high concentrations of any urinary constituents may indicate pathologyGlycosuriaProteinuriaHematuria
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CLINICAL – HOMEOSTATIC IMBALANCE Renalcalculi: kidney stones in renal pelvisCrystallized calcium, magnesium, or uric acid Large stones block ureter, causing pressure and painMay be due to:Chronic bacterial infectionUrine retentionIncreased Ca2+ in bloodIncreased pH of urineTreatment—shock wave lithotripsynoninvasive procedure involving shock waves to shatter calculi
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CLINICAL – HOMEOSTATIC IMBALANCE Abnormally high concentrations of any urinary constituents may indicate pathologyGlycosuriaProteinuriaHematuriaAnuria: abnormally low urinary output Renal failure and anuria result from situations in which nephrons stop functioningExample: transfusion reactions, and crush injuriesRenal failure: defined as GFR < 15 ml/minSymptoms: fatigue, anorexia, nausea, mental changes, crampsTreatment: hemodialysisor transplant
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