So scientists will make copies of the desired antibodies Then all of the

So scientists will make copies of the desired

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means that the antibodies are identical and came from the same cell. So, scientists will make copies of the desired antibodies. Then, all of the monoclonal antibodies are injected and are programmed to attack a specific target. On the other hand, cytokines are chemical messengers that are used in the immune system. There are two types of cytokines; interleukins and interferons (Woolston, 1). Interleukins and interferon-alpha work hand-in-hand to battle cancer. Interleukins regulate immune cells (like T-Cells) and interferons can slow cancer growth. Together, these cytokines are able to regulate the cancer and it's growth. This allows for scientists to personalize treatments for their patients depending on what the cytokines tell them about the cancer. In turn, this allows for the treatments to have a higher success rate. The next treatment type are cancer vaccines. They are treatments that include the process of injecting cancer-fighting fragments into the body to stimulate the immune system. Referring to the same cytokines as mentioned above, the fragments are able to trigger a reaction against the cancer in hopes of eliminating it once in for all. Another form of immunotherapy is called and immune checkpoint inhibitor. According to Dr. Sonpavde, the author of the article “Immunotherapy: What You Need to Know,” he states that, “It takes the brakes off immune cells, unlocking their ability to detect altered proteins on cancer cells in order to attack and kill these cells” (Sonpavde). An important mechanism of the immune system is the ability to determine ‘friend from foe’. This enables the immune system to attack select cells while leaving others unharmed by using “checkpoints”. Some cancer cells are able to use those checkpoints and avoid being attacked by the immune system. What immune checkpoint inhibitors do is that they inhibit the cancer cells from manipulating the checkpoints.
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Harvey 5 However, even though immunotherapy is successful, the controversy lies in risk. In immunotherapy, the patient must be infected with a genetically altered virus for a chance in removing the patient’s cancer. Thus, this genetically altered virus is the source of major risk to the patient and has the possibility of making their health worse instead of better. Likewise, Dr. Pathak discusses the risks with immunotherapy. In the article, “What Are the Pros and Cons of Immunotherapy”, written by Dr. Neha Pathak, she warns that even though immunotherapy appears promising, it can come at a high cost physically and is a lengthier treatment than others (Pathak, 2). Therefore, immunotherapy may not be an ideal treatment for every patient. Not only is immunotherapy risky, it also can have some detrimental effects on the body and its functions. Dr. Pathak warns that immunotherapy can be harmful because the treatment drugs can trigger the immune system to attack the major organs such as the heart, liver, lungs, kidney, and the intestines (Pathak, 2). Since the immune system and it's cells rely on chemicals
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  • Fall '11
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