The attempts the prc made to reform the thinking of

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upon everyone to “conform to generally accepted standards of behaviour.” The attempts the PRC made to reform the thinking of intellectuals the need of the PRC leaders for them to run the country but their resistance to taking orders from less educated people. Tension between the PRC’s need for highly trained and educated people and few of these people were peasants or workers and often felt a sense of privilege and resented taking orders from less educated officials. Meanwhile the arts along with education and the media were “under tight party control...and were meant to serve the revolution. Western-style artists were instructed in “‘socialist realism’ a style intended to inspire, not mirror life.” While artists working in traditional styles were urged to include modern topics in their work. Thus, the integration of intellectuals and artists into the new socialist society was a problem. So, when Mao invited them in 1956 with “let a hundred flowers bloom; let a hundred schools contend.” Few intellectuals responded, reluctant to expose themselves to attacks. This speech Mao suggested that “antagonistic contradictions should be resolved by persuasion rather than force.” With further reassurances, “the floodgate of criticism was opened:” Criticism was aimed at individuals, party policies as well as the CCP itself for attempting “to bring about the monolithic structure of a one-family empire.” Intellectuals, writers, and artists requested “independence from the party’s ideological control” and that academic problems should be left for professors to solve.” The criticism was more than Mao could stand. Shirokauer: “Weeds grew where he had invited flowers.” Mao led a “full-fledged
anti-rightist campaign” which began in June 1957. “Not only did prominent intellectual, literary, and artistic figures disappear into labour camps, but so did more than 400K others. The government announced a target of 5 percent per organization, and the campaign quickened to include a massive purge of party members and cadres. The result was that people with negative evaluations in their files “had their lives ruined.” And by 1958, few were left to object when Mao declared his “Great Leap Forward:” In the final analysis when it came to political correctness or expertise, Mao “put his faith in Redness, all too often at the expense of expertise.” 6. The Revolution Continued, 1958-1976: Describe the situation of the PRC leadership when the first five-year plan produced less than desirable results and how did Mao respond. By the end of the First Five-Year Plan, there were indications that the “Soviet model was not producing the desired economic or social results. However, there was disagreement over what to do. While some leaders felt only tiny adjustments were needed. However, Mao sought a more radical project. “As we shall see, he did not always get his way, but he did prevent the revolution from settling down into comfortable routines.” 7. The Great Leap Forward and the Great Famine: What was the course of this program over three years, 1958-1961, and how did this program mark a departure from Mao’s earlier gradualist program? Again how did Mao feel

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