O a task that was viewed as intrinsic value pursued

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o A task that was viewed as intrinsic value (pursued because it was rewarding) now becomes viewed as extrinsic value (an activity undertaken because there was reward)
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Unit 3: Types of Instrumental Conditioning Four Consequences Reinforcer: any stimulus which presented after response leads to change in rate of response Behaviours can be changed through either presentation or removal of positive and negative reinforcers Increase in Behaviour: o Presentation of a positive reinforce o Removal of a negative reinforce Decrease in Behaviour o Presentation of a negative reinforcer o Removal of a positive reinforcer Reward training Reward training presents a positive reinforce to encourage a behaviour Presentation of a positive reinforcer involves reward training = increases frequency of the behaviour E.g. Presenting puppy with a treat every time he sits on command o Behaviour likely to increase E.g. Presenting cold drink every time a person puts money into a machine o Behaviour likely to increase Punishment Punishment involves presentation of a negative reinforce = decrease in behaviour E.g. Billy teases sister in which mother scolds him o Behaviour will decrease E.g. Putting money into a vending machine which leads to electric shock o Behaviour will decrease Punishment training may risk being unethical or distressing (presenting a negative reinforcer) BF Skinner believed that when punishment is used, the authority figure may through classical conditioning become signal for pain or distress, a contingency that may damage a parent-child relationship Omission Training Removes a positive reinforcer to discourage a behaviour Removing a positive reinforcer is a situation where E.g. Billy is watching TV show and teasing his sister. o Mother turns off TV every 30 seconds when he teases his sister. o Access to TV show is a positive reinforcer o Removing it, will stop his teasing behaviour
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E.g. “Time outs” o Child leaves the play area without access to toy and friends (positive reinforcers) o With removal of positive reinforcers, the child will stop the unwanted response Punishment and omission training achieve the same goal, but through different means o Removal of a positive reinforcer does NOT equal Presentation of a negative reinforcer Escape Training Removes a negative reinforcer to encourage a behaviour E.g. a floor of one side of a rat cage has electric shock. o Can be avoided if the rat moves to the other side of the cage E.g. Grumpy landlord lives below a tenant who listens to loud music o Landlord bangs on the ceiling with a broom which leads to music being turned off o Landlord learns that he can avoid the music (negative reinforcer) by initiating a response of banging on the ceiling Conclusion The timing of a reinforcer is critical to its effectiveness on a behaviour Best when consequence immediately follows its response Unit 4 – Acquisition and Shaping Contingencies
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  • Winter '14
  • Instrumental Conditioning,  Mike

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