Average years of teaching experience and schooling

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average years of teaching experience and schooling attainment of teachers, the propor- tion of students receiving lunch support, and private/public schools. 8 Results Checking the Randomness of School Assignment To verify the randomness of student assignment among Seoul high schools, we use student-level data from the KELS to estimate logit models that predict the likelihood of attending a single-sex school (vs. a coeducational school) among current first-year high school students by two socioeconomic characteristics of parents (parental education and household income) and student s prior academic achievement, which were all measured one year before entering high school. Table 1 reveals that none of socioeconomic and academic background measures is associated with the likelihood that students attend single-sex schools for either boys or girls. In other words, the results suggest no significant difference in the two observed characteristics of parents and student s prior academic achievement between students currently attending single-sex schools and their peers attending coeducational high schools. This simi- larity strengthens the claim that the student distribution among Seoul high schools is close to the random assignment. In contrast, studies in the United States and other countries, where students (and their families) may choose single-sex schools over coeducational schools, have found more advantaged background characteristics among students in single-sex schools than their counterparts in coeducational schools (Lee and Bryk 1986 ; Lee and Marks 1992 ; Riordan 1990 ). 8 Except for the dummy variable for private schools, the four school-level variables are centered on grand means. Single-Sex Schools and College Entrance Exam Scores and Attendance 457
Differences in School Characteristics by School Type Although the comparisons in Table 1 show that single-sex and coeducational schools do not differ in their students socioeconomic and academic backgrounds, single-sex and coeducational schools can still differ in other important school char- acteristics that have been found to significantly affect student learning, such as student-teacher ratios and also teacher quality, which is often measured by years of teaching experience and schooling attainment among teachers (Akiba et al. 2007 ; Arum and LaFree 2008 ; Behrman and Birdsall 1983 ; Card and Krueger 1996 ). As we noted earlier, the system of teacher selection and appointment differs between private and public schools. Because of correlations between private and single- sex school status, therefore, teacher-related characteristics, which are not nec- essarily caused by single-sex school status, can differ between single-sex and coeducational schools. Table 2 presents ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions comparing the level of each school quality measure among all-boys, all-girls, and coeducational schools. For the analysis, we use measures for the same school year, 2009, that is used for the analysis of national college entrance exam scores.

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