Observational learning negative information and

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Observational learning : Negative information and modeling are major factors accounting for childhood fears. Probably depends on if the model and observed situation can elicit a strong vicarious emotional response. Ollendick and King (1991) found that modeling (56%) accounted for childhood fears more than direct conditioning experiences (36%).
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Cognitive behavioral : Negative thoughts and overestimates of unpleasant future events in those with phobias; may be consequence of phobias rather than cause. Biological perspective : Genetic predisposition for fear reactions but depends on the type of phobia with specific phobias having less of a genetic contribution than either agoraphobia or social phobias. Some evidence that individuals may inherit the disposition to develop phobias due to having usually high autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity – more likely to respond more intensively to external and internal stimuli, more easily aroused and more difficulty in habituating to stimuli.
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Preparedness : Certain phobias may develop because people are evolutionarily predisposed to develop certain fears because certain stimuli were dangerous to pre- modern humans. Treatment of phobias Biochemical treatments : Many new drugs; benzodiazepines, SSRIs most commonly used drugs to treat phobias. Effective but effects confounded with exposure effects with the feared stimulus.
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Behavioral treatments – most effective approaches usually involves combination of the following: Exposure therapy – gradually introduce contact with feared situation; extinction Systematic desensitization – relaxation (incompatible response to anxiety) while imagining increasingly anxiety- provoking situations in stimulus hierarchy. Cognitive restructuring challenges catastrophic thinking and self-focus Modeling therapy – model should be similar to patient in characteristics
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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Obsessions Obsessions : Intrusive, repetitive thoughts or images that : Intrusive, repetitive thoughts or images that produce anxiety. Most common obsessions: Children and produce anxiety. Most common obsessions: Children and adolescents - dirt, germs, disease, death, danger to oneself adolescents - dirt, germs, disease, death, danger to oneself or loved ones. Adults – bodily wastes, secretions, dirt, or loved ones. Adults – bodily wastes, secretions, dirt, germs, environmental contamination. germs, environmental contamination. Compulsions Compulsions : The need to perform acts or to dwell on : The need to perform acts or to dwell on thoughts to reduce anxiety. Most common compulsions: thoughts to reduce anxiety. Most common compulsions: Children and adolescents – excessive or ritualized Children and adolescents – excessive or ritualized washing, repeating rituals, checking behaviors. washing, repeating rituals, checking behaviors. In a given year, ~1% of U.S. adult population has OCD; no In a given year, ~1% of U.S. adult population has OCD; no gender differences, but less common in AfAm and gender differences, but less common in AfAm and MexAm MexAm
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Etiology of OCD: Etiology of OCD: Biological Biological : Increased metabolic activity in the frontal : Increased metabolic activity in the frontal
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  • Spring '07
  • Zane
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Social anxiety disorder

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