Eyes and nostrils above snout large toothy mouths

Info icon This preview shows pages 20–23. Sign up to view the full content.

Eyes and nostrils above snout, large toothy mouths, strong neck muscles Birds Feathers, flight skeletons, no teeth, tiny tails, lung design, endothermy, scales on legs and feet, thoracic breathing, amniotic eggs, Keel (breastbone), fully separated pulmonary and systemic circuits, endotherms Paleognaths (flightless ratites- emu, kiwi, timamous) and Neognaths (everyone else- penguins, owl, flamingo) Mammals Traits Hair Keep warm, camouflage, sensory (dolphins and whales have lost most hair), defense Mammary glands Leads to nipples for offspring to consume milk w/ high at to develop brain Endothermy Homoplasious in mammals and birds Sweat glands Secrete liquids to cool, most animals have localized sweat glands Four chambered hearts Endothermy is energy demanding Two groups Prototherians (monotremes) Therians (Marsupials and Eutherians) - both show convergent traits Most mammals are Eutherians Marsupials Often have pouches, small internal gestation, mainly in S. America and Australia Eutherians Diverged quickly after mass extinction of dinos, diverged as continents broke apart Primates Grasping fingers and toes, opposable thumbs, flattened nails, binocular vision, forward facing eyes, overlapping= depth perception Strepsirrhini (wet-nosed primates) Limited to africa and asia, nocturnal and arboreal, almost entirely herbivores,
Image of page 20

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

madagascar lemurs are different (diurnal, highly social and matriarchal) Haplorhini primates Dry-nosed, diurnal, color vision, complex social lives (big groups, extended parental care) Platyrrhines New world monkeys, south and central america, arboreal, prehensile tails common Catarrhines Gave rise to old world monkeys, african origin, downward facing nostrils Old world monkey Africa, no prehensile tail, large social groups Hominoids Larger brains and bodies than monkeys, consist of apes and hominins Asian apes- gibbons (social) and orangutans (solitary) Homininae- include gorilla Hominini- chimps and bonobo included Hominins Ardipithecus- mostly arboreal Australopithecines- first hominin w/ many fossils (Australopithecus- 35% brain size, Paranthropus- 45%, Australopithecus sebida lineage of homo) First homo species- homo habillis (short, long arms, fossilized tools) Replaced by homo erectus (first to talk, first hunter-gatherer, fire, leave africa) Homo neanderthalensis- 600,000 years ago Hommosapiens- 34,000 years ago (of which Sam is the qtest of all time)
Image of page 21
Ecology Definition Distribution and abundance of organisms Climate Variation in light intensity Angle of earth Variation in local conditions Affected by terrain and vegetation, Hadley circulation (cycle of rising hot air and falling cold air, affects precipitation), rain shadows (coastal mountains- wind picks up moist air → warm air cools as it rises over mountain → cool air condenses as it rises and precipitated on coastal side → dry air goes over and down other side causing no precipitation)
Image of page 22

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Image of page 23
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.
  • Fall '18
  • jessica poulin
  • Evolution, Cellular differentiation

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern