The collected stems were then dehydrated for about

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possessed a gall or a flower before it was stored within a paper bag. The collected stems were then dehydrated for about twenty four hours at 95 degrees Celsius. The weight of the flower and the stem was then measured, followed by a calculation of the percent total weight of the respective stem and flower.
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O’Connor A paired t-test calculation was then performed on the collected data for the weight of the stem and leaves, the weight of the flower, and the height of the non-galled and galled individuals. This t-test was performed in excel and utilized the following function. T-Test= (array1, array2, tails, type) The critical value or t-value was then calculated for the weight of the stem and leaves, the weight of the flower, and the height of the non-galled and galled individuals. This statistical analysis was also done through excel and utilized the below equation function. T-inv=(probability, degrees of freedom) Standard error was also calculated for each data point. This was accomplished by dividing the standard deviation for each respective data category by the degrees of freedom, which in this experiment was thirty-four. Results: When comparing the average height for galled and non-galled Solidago canadensis one can notice a significant difference as seen in figure 1. This was then solidified with the calculated p-value for this trait, which was 7.95×10 -6 . For one the average height for an individual who possessed a gall was 12.29 cm shorter than individuals who did not possess galls. There was also a noticeable and calculated significant difference between galled and non-galled individuals when it came to the characteristic of the weight of the flower. The p-value was that of 4.72×10 -7 . This significance then carried over to the percent weight of the flower as evident by figure 5 where a clear difference between the two graphed individual types can be witnessed. On average an individual that contained a gall had flowers that weighed 0.707 grams less than a plant counterpart that did not possess a gall. However, the weight of the stem and leaves between galled and non-galled individuals was not found to be significant with it possessing a p-value of
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O’Connor 0.338. This is then further supported within figure 2. This is once again translated in the percent weight of the stem and leaves of galled and non-galled individuals and can be examined further within figure 3. Discussion: My hypothesis and main ecological question for this experiment was whether or not galling by the larvae of Eurosta solidaginis reduces the performance of Solidago canadensis through their impact on the plant’s size and weight. It was shown that galling insect larvae of Eurosta solidaginis do in fact impact the performance of the Solidago canadensis. The above outlined results depicted the difference in height to be significant when comparing the two different types of individuals as stated before. Thus, leading to a decrease in performance for shorter galled individual plants due to the association between fitness and size within a plant population (Weiner 1986). In plant species, the individuals who acquire more resources get big
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