Groups meet regularly to identify analyse investigate

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Groups meet regularly to identify, analyse, investigate, evaluate and consider issues in own area. Issues, problems work or production related, hence quality-related. Quality circle members should preferably be well trained in areas such as data collection, statistical and analytical methodologies and general problem-solving techniques. Meetings take place during working hours, when ideas are pooled in order to come up with solutions that may counter difficulties in the workplace and thus improve quality of work and work output. Participation through teams
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13 “Team” can be defined as “a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable”. Various forms of teams exist such as participative network designs, parallel teams, project and development teams and working teams. Teams are very successfully utilised in modern organisations. Participation through consultation Technique whereby workers – primarily through their representatives – periodically confer with supervisors or more senior employer representatives. Done in a structured manner by means of (for example) a committee, council or similar structure. Committees usually comprise number of experienced managers as well as workers who are elected on merit and represent the other workers. Committees formed primarily to enable representatives to devote attention to specific issues, such as the improvement of worker-welfare facilities. Committees involved through consultation with the employer, with view to influencing employers decisions about the issues in question. Consultation can be viewed as "mechanism for managers and employee representatives to meet on a regular basis, in order to exchange views, to utilise members' knowledge and expertise, and to deal with matters of common interest which are not the subject of collective bargaining". Management's sincerity in considering criticisms and proposals of workers (usually through their representatives), should be genuinely prepared to reconsider own proposals before embarking on finalising or implementing decisions. Management should be prepared to offer reasons for not accepting the views or proposals put forward by worker representatives, because they believe the matters in question form part of an area of common interest or joint concern. Participation through codetermination Workers (mostly through their representatives) and the employer (represented by management) held jointly responsible by the owners of the enterprise (the shareholders) for the results of their decisions. Workers should have parity of representation on the board of directors in order to share fully in decision making. Calls for more commitment by the employer and worker representatives than required by the other techniques, since decisions can only be reached on a joint basis.
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