Tot n mol mol mol 2 080 067 120 h mol x mol 040 033

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tot n mol mol mol 2 0.80 0.67 1.20 H mol X mol 0.40 0.33 1.20 ) CO mol X mol tot tot n RT P V (1.20 )(0.082 )(305 ) 1.50 20 L atm mol K mol K atm L
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Slide 21 1.6 g H 2 [M=2] and 11.2 g CO [M=28] are placed in a 20 L tank at 32 o C Calculate: P tot , P H2 , P CO , X H2 , X CO 2 0.80 0.67 1.20 H mol X mol 0.40 0.33 1.20 ) CO mol X mol 2 2 0.67 1.50 1.00 H H tot P X P atm atm 1.50 tot tot n RT P atm V 0.33 1.50 0.50 CO CO tot P X P atm atm
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Slide 22 Vapor Pressure of Water H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O P o H2O T P o H2O -20 o C 0.8 torr 10 9 25 24 50 93 75 290 90 530 100 760 120 1490 Pressure cookers Cooking at altitude
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Slide 23 Collecting Gases Over Water Reaction with gaseous product; e.g. 2 KClO 3 (s) 2 KCl(s) + 3 O 2 (g) The total gas pressure in the container is given by: P tot = P atm = P gas + P o H2O Gas in cylinder is a mixture of H 2 O(g) + Product(g) [e.g. O 2 (g)]
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Slide 24 P tot = P atm = P gas + P o H2O P o H2O is the vapor pressure of water at the reaction temperature. The value can be found in standard tables. Barometric pressure of atmosphere The pressure of the gaseous product, P gas , is determined from the room barometric pressure - the value of P o H2O from the table. P gas = P atm - P o H2O
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Slide 25 Example KClO 3 (s) decomposes when heated to produce KCl(s) and O 2 (g): 2 KClO 3 (s) 2 KCl(s) + 3 O 2 (g) What mass of O 2 has been collected? A sample of KClO 3 decomposes and the O 2 is collected in a 400 mL flask at 26 o C and 720 torr (total pressure). The vapor pressure of water at 26 o C is 25 torr. M(O 2 ) = 32. 0.48 g
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Slide 26 The Ideal Gas Law and Reaction Stoichiometry aA -> bB or aA + bB -> Prod. g(A) mol(A) mol(B) g(B) M(A) Stoich. M(B) V(A) IDG Eqn. V(B) IDG Eqn.
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Slide 27 The oxidation of glucose, C 6 H 12 O 6 [M=180], is given by: C 6 H 12 O 6 (s) + 6 O 2 (g) 6 CO 2 (g) + 6 H 2 O(l) What volume of CO 2 (g) is produced under human body conditions (1 atm. and 37 o C) when 6.0 g (~0.2 Oz) of glucose is metabolized? P = 1 atm & T = 37 o C = 310 K 1 6.0 0.0333 180 Glu mol n g mol g 2 2 2 6 0.0333 0.20 1 CO mol CO n mol Glu mol CO mol Glu nRT V P (0.20 )(0.082 )(310 ) 1 L atm mol K mol K atm 5.08 L
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Slide 28 The gas in airbags is produced by the decomposition of sodium azide: __NaN 3 (s) __Na(s) + __N 2 (g) 106 g What mass of sodium azide is needed to produce 60 L of N 2 (g) [enough to fill the airbag] at 1. atm. and 26 o C? M(NaN 3 ) = 65
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Slide 29 Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases 2. Total volume of all molecules is much smaller than volume of the container. 3. Attractive and repulsive forces between molecules are negligible. i.e. there is no interaction between collisions 4. Energy is transferred between molecules when they collide. However, total energy is constant. i.e. collisions are “elastic”. 1. Molecules are in constant random motion. Pressure is due to collisions with walls of container.
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Figure 5.15 A molecular view of Boyle’s law.
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