A General Model.
BEEHR A N D NEWMAN 671 follows. The vast majority of the references were obtained via MED- LARS I1 Search and Retrieval System (which accesses the medical literature) and the Psychological Abstract’s Search and Retrieval Sys- tem. An attempt has been made to review here only the research that is ( I ) methodologically sound and (2) closely related to job stress (and, hence, employee health) rather than to stress in general. Many studies were eliminated because they did not meet both criteria. Literature Review Environmental Facet The environmental facet includes any aspect of the (objective) work environment that is perceived as stressful by the employee, and re- sponded to accordingly, or sensed by the human organism and re- sponded to (e.g., physiologically) without the employee being cogni- tively aware of the cause. The studies of the environmental facet have focused on social-psychological and organizational aspects of the work environment rather than on the physical work environment. This reflects, in part, those researchers’ interests and value judgments as to what aspects of the work environment are most important to study in relation to employee health. I n fact, very few studies dealing with the physical environment were uncovered in the computerized li terat w e searches using job stress and employee health-related key words. Al- though the study of physical working conditions, equipment design, etc. is a traditional area within 1/0 psychology (cf., McCormick, 1976), apparently that body of knowledge has not been construed, classified, or coded as stredhealth-related. Few studies have measured job (i.e., environmental) stressors in any objective manner and even fewer have studied the relationship be- tween objectively measured environmental stressors and employee perceptions of them (the primary linkage for the environmental facet in Figure 1). Three studies stand out as exceptions to this latter observation. Sales (1970) found that objective workload, as manipu- lated in a laboratory study of male undergraduate students, was re- lated to perceived workload as measured by a questionnaire. Coburn (1975) constructed a relatively objective index of job incongruence by comparing an employee’s education with an estimate of the educa- tional requirements of the employee’s job. According to Coburn, this was a very limited index and was only weakly related to the employee’s perceived incongruence (a measure of workload) for a sample of male workers in a variety of jobs in British Columbia. Kahn, et al. (1964) with a sample of male workers, obtained an “objective” index of role conflict by asking a focal employee’s role senders what they would like
618 PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY the employee to do that he was not already doing. This was objective only in the sense that it was a measure of the focal employee’s job demands obtained via the perceptions of someone other than the focal employee. The assumption was that the role senders would apply pressure on the focal employee if he were not doing all that was
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