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Artificial Sweeteners Versus Regular Mixers Increase Breath Alcohol Concentrations in Male andFemale Social DrinkersBackground: Limited research suggests that alcohol consumed with an artificially sweetened mixer(e.g., diet soft drink) results in higher breath alcohol concentrations (BrACs) compared with the sameamount of alcohol consumed with a similar beverage containing sugar. The purpose of this study wasto determine the reliability of this effect in both male and female social drinkers and to determine if there are measureable objective and subjective differences when alcohol is consumed with an artificially sweetened versus sugar-sweetened mixer.Methods: Participants (n = 16) of equal gender attended 3 sessions where they received 1 of 3 doses (1.97 ml/kg vodka mixed with 3.94 ml/kg Squirt, 1.97 ml/kg vodka mixed with 3.94 ml/kg diet Squirt, and a placebo beverage) in random order. BrACs were recorded, as were self-reported ratings of subjective intoxication, fatigue, impairment, and willingness to drive. Objective performance was assessed using a cued go/no-go reaction time task. Results: BrACs were significantly higher in the alcohol + diet beverage condition compared withthe alcohol + regular beverage condition. The mean peak BrAC was 0.091 g/210 l in the alcohol + diet condition compared with 0.077 g/210 l in the alcohol + regular condition. Cued go/no-go task performanceindicated the greatest impairment for the alcohol + diet beverage condition. Subjective measures indicated that participants appeared unaware of any differences in the 2 alcohol conditions, given that no significant differences in subjective ratings were observed for the 2 alcohol conditions. No gender differences were observed for BrACs, and objective and subjective measures.Conclusions: Mixing alcohol with a diet soft drink resulted in elevated BrACs, as compared with the same amount of alcohol mixed with a sugar-sweetened beverage. Individuals were unaware of these differences, a factor that may increase the safety risks associated with drinking alcohol.Key Words: Alcohol, Artificially Sweetened Beverages, Diet Drinks, Breath Alcohol Concentration,Reaction Times.FOLLOWING THE CONSUMPTION of alcohol, an individual’s breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) isinfluenced by a variety of factors, such as whether food was consumed. The presence of food can be so important that reductions in peak BrAC have been reported to be as much as 20 to 57% when food is present in the stomach as compared with when alcohol is consumed alone. While food delays stomach emptying (thus reducing BrAC), only recently has the role of nonalcoholic drink mixers consumed with alcohol been explored as another potential factor influencing BrAC. Many alcoholic beverages are mixed with other nonalcoholic beverages (e.g., rum mixed with coke or vodka mixed with orange juice).