Cavanaugh Dawson and Ritzhaupt 2011 stated there are three key elements that

Cavanaugh dawson and ritzhaupt 2011 stated there are

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Cavanaugh, Dawson, and Ritzhaupt (2011) stated there are three key elements that influence the impact of laptop computing on student achievement. These include (a) systematic
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MOBILE DEVICE IMPACT ON STUDENT PERFORMANCE 5 support, (b) professional development, and (c) changes in teaching practices. In their study, they examined the impact of laptop computing on teaching practices and student achievement in eleven Florida school districts over one school year. The study collected data from both urban and rural K-12 schools with no emphasis on content area or grade level. Data collection from observations, document analysis, interviews and teacher inquiry were used to develop an account of the 1:1 laptop implementation’s impact. Findings from their study showed the impact of laptops on student achievement as being inconclusive, due to inconsistent performance results. Though most of the classes in the study showed positive impacts from laptop use, some classes had negative results, which were attributed to students not knowing how to use the laptops or being comfortable using them. Cavanaugh, Dawson, and Ritzhaupt’s (2011) work underscores how laptops were seen as a tool to facilitate change in teaching practices, which in turn impacted student achievement. Their study also identified two other factors for a positive 1:1 implementation, systematic support and professional development. This suggests that varying degrees of implementation levels for these three factors could potentially impact future studies. In order to reduce the impact of these factors on this study, the researcher took steps to ensure that support was available for the devices used and they were working each day as planned. Additional steps were taken to ensure that the teacher was adequately prepared to use the technology, including guidance and training for using the devices and software required to create the digital plant portfolios. Unfortunately, one element that was identified by Cavanaugh, Dawson, and Ritzhaupt’s (2011) study that could affect research regarding 1:1 implementations is the impact of student comfort with technology. This is a potential limitation with many 1:1 studies and has been identified by other researchers as impactful on student computer usage (Anderson &
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MOBILE DEVICE IMPACT ON STUDENT PERFORMANCE 6 Williams, 2012; Hsiao, Tu, & Chung, 2012). Because studies are often short in duration, typically occurring only over a one to two year period, their findings may be influenced by the novelty factor of new technology and limitations in user comfort with the technology. In other research, Bebell and Kay (2010) used a standardized test known as the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) as one of the quantitative assessments to help determine the impact of the 1:1 implementation on student achievement. Their study was conducted over a three-year period and focused on five middle schools during the implementation of a 1:1 wireless laptop solution. Two schools of similar size and demographics, and did not implement a 1:1 solution, were used as a comparison group.
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