Examples include: Bathsheba Holding King David's Letter (1654, Louvre, Paris); The Jewish
Bride (c.1665-8, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam); and Return of the Prodigal Son (1666-69, Hermitage Museum). Protestant Genre Painting Dutch Realist Genre Painting - mostly small-scale oil paintings of everyday scenes, containing a covert Christian or moral message - involved some of Holland's greatest Old Masters. Tavern scene painters included Adriaen Brouwer (1605-38), Adriaen van Ostade (1610-85) and Jan Steen (1626-79); domestic scene painters included Gerrit van Honthorst (1592-1656), David Teniers the Younger (1610-90), Gerard Terborch (1617-81), Gabriel Metsu (1629-67) and Pieter de Hooch (1629-83). See, for instance, moralistic pictures like The Concert (1625, Borghese Gallery, Rome) by Gerrit van Honthorst, Couple Flirting Outdoors (c.1650, Stedelijk Museum, Leiden) by Jan Steen, and Mother Lacing Her Bodice Beside a Cradle (1662, SMPK, Berlin) by Pieter de Hooch. The greatest genre-painter however was the Delft painter Jan Vermeer (1632-1675), whose masterpieces include: The Little Street (1657-58, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam); The Milkmaid (1658-60, Rijksmuseum); Woman Holding a Balance (1662-63, National Gallery, Washington DC); Young Woman with a Water Jug (1662, Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY); Woman with a Pearl Necklace (1663, Gemaldegalerie, SMPK, Berlin); and The Lacemaker (1669-70, Louvre, Paris). Protestant Still Life Painting Protestant still lifes were basically symbolic pictures, containing a covert religious narrative. A particular example is the "Vanitas still life painting" - derived from Ecclesiastes 12:8 "Vanity of vanities saith the preacher, all is vanity" - which typically contains symbolic images (including skulls, snuffed candles, hourglasses with the sand running out, watches, butterflies etc.,) to remind the observer of the transience of mortal life, compared to the permanence of true Christian values. Specialist still life artists included: Frans Snyders (1579-1657), who is noted for still lifes of dead game and meat, crammed with religious allusions and moral pointers; Harmen van Steenwyck (1612-56), the leading vanitas painter; Willem Claesz Heda (1594-1681), an exponent of monochrome banketje; Pieter Claesz (1597-1660), a specialist in ontbijtjes (breakfast still lifes); Jan Davidsz de Heem (1606-83) and Willem Kalf (1619-93), who specialized in decorative still
lifes; Samuel Van Hoogstraten (1627-78), whose speciality was interiors with deep linear perspective; and Rachel Ruysch (1664-1750), arguably the greatest ever female flower painter. Among the greatest Protestant still-lifes are: The Vanities of Human Life (1645) by Harmen Steenwyck; A Vanitas Still Life (1645) by Pieter Claesz; Breakfast of Crab (1648, Hermitage, St Petersburg) by Willem Claesz Heda; Still Life with Chinese Porcelain Jar (1662, SMPK, Berlin) by Willem Kalf; The Slippers (1654) by Samuel Hoogstraten; Decorative Still Life in front of Architecture (A Dessert) (1640, Louvre, Paris) by Jan Davidsz de Heem. Protestant Reformation art can be seen in some of the best art museums around the world.
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