Welfare was much more de-centralized than now due to distribution for work units. Bureaucratic rank strongly influenced those who received benefits of welfare. SOEs formed pensions as a cost-sharing arrangement through their operating budget in mid-1980s. Only workers received the full benefits of these pensions. It wasn’t until 1997 when all “urban enterprises” regulation was enacted for equality in cities. China’s new welfare state is designed similar to capitalist countries such as unemployment and minimum income payments, but are constrained by previous enterprise-based system. Central government gives money to local governments to give to citizens, and now is taking a less hands-on role. Initially, many workers were excluded from these benefits due to lack of legal eligibility but now may change due to the new SIL draft. Since it is funded by payroll taxes, redistribution will help those in most need. When workers lost jobs by SOE, there was much social unrest as the government was blamed. People blamed the government more losing trillions of yuan pension payments during the restructuring in 1990s in what they called inadequate compensation. CCP mismanaged $4.2 billion in pension scandal for landmark real estate development. The new SIL plan hopes to cover migrants and those not under the Hukou system. It comes
during a time of high labor disputes where social security was ranked 2nd most pressing issue in China. Migrants don’t have a good pension record due to high turnover rates where they would lose pensions upon switching. Polling suggest people want State to be pension provider, want basic pension rights for all people, and a majority want equal rights for farmers. But results highly depend on region. 12. 11/29: Religion Gries, Chapter 2 Until the state moves away from ethical claims to legitimate its power, religious organizations like the Falun Gong will continue to challenge its right to power. The Falun Gong directly disdain the pseudo-scientific ideas of Marxism and state power that the CCP is based on. -Falun Gong= religious group, part of the qigong practice, based on meditation. The leader was the charismatic Li Hongzhi. In spring of 1999, government declared Falun Gong a "heretical sect" and banned it. Falun Gong was believed to pose a grave threat to the social order, peace and political stability of the country. It seemed strange to many, but in the past, syncretic popular religious sects and secret societies have challenged state authority and produced political crisis. White Lotus rebels shook the last dynasty at end of 18th century. Other examples: Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, mid 19th century and the Boxers in beginning of 20th century. Thus, CCP was drawing historical parallels in accusing Falun Gong.
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- Summer '19
- Government, People's Republic of China, Jiang Zemin, Hu Jintao