A cross organizational factor analysis with

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A cross-organizational factor analysis with orthogonal rotation (an ecolog- ical factor analysis, based on the mean scores for each question) produced six clear and mutually independent dimensions of (perceived) practices distinguishing the twenty organizational units from each other. The six dimensions were labelled: 1. process oriented vs. results oriented 2. employee oriented vs. job oriented 3. parochial vs. professional 4. open system vs. closed system 5. loose vs. tight control 6. normative vs. pragmatic For each of the six dimensions, three key 'where I work .... ' questions were chosen, in order to calculate an index value of each unit on each dimension. The key questions for each dimension were strongly intercorrelated at the unit level, but not necessarily at the level of individual responses. Dimension 1 explores the differences between a concern with means and a concern with goals. The three key items show that, in the process-oriented cultures, people perceive themselves as avoiding risks and spending only a limited effort on their jobs, while each day is pretty much the same. In the results-oriented cultures, people perceive themselves as being comfort- able in unfamiliar situations and putting in a maximal effort, while each day is felt to bring new challenges. Dimension 2 explores the differences between a concern for people and a concern for getting the job done. The key items selected show that, in the employee-oriented cultures, people feel that their personal problems are taken into accotint, that the organization takes a responsibility for employee wel- fare, and that important decisions tend to be made by groups or committees. In the job-oriented units, people experience a strong pressure for getting the job done. They perceive the organization as only being interested in the work employees do, not in their personal and family welfare; and they report that important decisions tend to be made by individuals. Dimension 3 compares and contrasts units whose employees derive their identity largely from the organization with units in which people identify with their type of job. The key questions show that members of parochial cultures feel that the organization's norms cover their behaviour at home
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484 Geert Hoistede as well as on the job. They feel that in hiring employees, the company takes their social and family background into account as much as their job competence; and they do not look far into the future (they assume the orga- nization will do this for them). Members of professional cultures, however, consider their private lives to be their own business. They feel that the organization hires on the basis of job competence only, and they do think far ahead. Dimension 4 looks at the differences between open and closed .systems. The key items show that in the open-system units members consider both the organization and its people to be open to newcomers and outsiders: almost anyone would fit into the organization, and new employees need only a few days to feel at home. In the closed-system units, the organiza-
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  • Spring '12
  • dr.long
  • Geeit Hofstede

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