Psychology Lessons 3-6 Notes .docx

2 brainstem lower part of the brain that connects it

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2. Brainstem lower part of the brain that connects it with the spinal cord; important for conciousness, sleep, and life-maintaining functions (ex. Breating, heartbeat). 3. Cerebellum pair of hemispheres resembling the cerebral hemispheres that are involved in motor control – the cerebellum ensures movements are coordinated, well timed and precise. 4. Hypothalamus area of the brain that controls the hormonal system, drives (like hunger and thirst), and body temperature, where the behaviors are responses to these drives. 5. Thalamus info from the sensory orgas and motor signals from the subcortical structures like the basal ganglia are received by thalamic regions and relayed seperately to cortex. Also involvwed in regulating wakefulness and sleep. 6. Basal Ganglia group of subcortial structures that exchange info with different parts of the cerebral cortex and play a role in voluntary movement and learning and remembering how to do something automatizing/ procedural memories. 7. Limbic System number of interlinked structures that form a border around the brainstem and are important for motivation, emotion, and some types of memory. 8. Cerebral Cortex outer layer of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain consisting of a “rind” of grey matter – the neuron cell bodies. Underneath the grey matter, there is white matter – the myelineated long axons of some of those cells, communicating with cells in other brain regions. o 1 of: brainstem, cerebellum, hypothalamus. o 2 of (one in each hemisphere): thalamus, basal ganglia, limbic system, and cortex. Damage Effects o Brainstem paralysis or death. o Cerebellum clumsy movements, likely to lose balance, trouble judging timing, loss of precision of movement.
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o Homeostais – tendency of an aniaml to regulate its internal conditions by a system of feedback controls to optimize health and functioning. o Subcortial Structures below/ under the cortex. o Amygdala part of the limbic system, important for emotional learning. o Hippocampus part of limbic system, essential for encoding certain types of memory, including learning one’s way around a place (spatial memory) and memories of facts and knowledge that can be conciously retrieved (declaractive memory). o Limbic System no ability to feel fear, stress, anxiety. Cerebral Cortex has 4 Lobes Cerebral cortex has 4 lobes: 1. Frontal lobe - divided into 2 parts: Primary Motor Cortex (back portion) - generates motor commands resulting in the voluntary movement of parts of the body Prefrontal Cortex (front portion) - 30% of cortex, essential for rational, goal- directed activity, directing, and maintaining attention, keeping ideas in mind, developing plans and acting on them, interpreting social cues, behaving in a socially appropriate manner Underside and middle of frontal lobe important in interpersonal and emotional behavior 2. Temporal lobe (storage of memories, experiencing of strong emotions, smell and
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