to the dogma of the BDMA we will make strenuous efforts to avoid slipping into

To the dogma of the bdma we will make strenuous

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to the dogma of the BDMA, we will make strenuous efforts to avoid slipping into dogma ourselves. In disputes of this kind, involving fundamental assumptions about human nature and society, it is all too easy to descend into ideo- logical rancour. As scientists, we need to keep in mind Popper s ( 1992 ) admonitions concerning the need for falsifi- ability in scientific propositions; we must always be willing to say, as clearly as we can, what it would take to change our minds and admit that addiction was, after all, best seen as a disease of the brain. We trust that advocates of the BDMA will do the same from their point of view. Acknowledgements Thanks are due to Anthony Moss for useful comments on parts of a previous version of this editorial. We also thank Wulf Livingstone, Betsy Thom and all others who contributed to the suc- cess of the symposium held at the NDSAG Annual Conference. The symposium was supported by a Network Grant from Alcohol Research UK. 1 See the homepages of these two studies: & ADDICTION RESEARCH & THEORY 253
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Disclosure statement The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. References Animal Farm. 2014. Editorial. Nature. 506:5. Beauchamp TL, Childress JF. 1989. Principles of biomedical ethics. 3rd ed. New York (NY): Oxford University Press. Berridge KC. 2017. Is addiction a brain disease? Neuroethics. 10:29 33. Best D, Albertson K, Irving J, Lightowlers C, Mama-Rudd A, Chaggar A. 2015. UK life in recovery survey. Sheffield (UK): Sheffield Hallam University. Childress JF. 1997. Practical reasoning in bioethics. Bloomington (IN): Indiana University Press. Faden RR, Beauchamp TL. 1986. A history and theory of informed con- sent. New York (NY): Oxford University Press. Fenton T, Wiers RW. 2017. Free will, black swans and addiction. Neuroethics. 10:157 165. Goldstein RZ, Bechara A, Garavan H, Childress AR, Paulus MP, Volkow ND. 2009. The neurocircuitry of impaired insight in drug addiction. Trends Cogn Sci (Regul Ed) Sci. 13:372 380. Goldstein RZ, Volkow ND. 2002. Drug addiction and its underlying neurobiological basis: neuroimaging evidence for the involvement of the frontal cortex. Am J Psychiatry. 159:1642 1652. Hall W, Carter A, Forlini C. 2014. The brain disease model of addic- tion: is it supported by the evidence and has it delivered on its promises? Lancet Psychiatry. 2:105 110. Hall W, Carter A, Forlini C. 2015. Brain disease model of addiction: misplaced priorities? Lancet Psychiatry. 2:867. Heather N. 2017a. Is the concept of compulsion useful in the explan- ation or description of addictive behaviour and experience? Addict Behav Reports. 6:15 38. Heather N. 2017b. Q: Is addiction a brain disease or a moral failing? A: neither. Neuroethics. 10:115 124. Heather N, Segal G. 2017. Addiction and choice: rethinking the rela- tionship. Oxford (UK): Oxford University Press.
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