MS argues that ideas need to fulfil certain criteria to survive when competing

Ms argues that ideas need to fulfil certain criteria

This preview shows page 86 - 89 out of 354 pages.

MS argues that ideas need to fulfil certain criteria to survive when competing against each other. By identifying technical feasibility, value acceptance and anticipation of future constraints as criteria for survival, MS explains why some ideas make it onto a 23 Capano (2009, p. 21) argues a prevalence of the political stream, as MS views policy as a constant target of political influence. 24 The t erm ‘primeval soup’ refe rs to the similarities of the policy process and processes of biological natural selection of molecules in the “primeval soup” before life came into being” (Kingdon 2011, pp. 116-117) , reflecting a ‘hard science’ positive epistemology.
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73 policy agenda and others do not. However, the concept of ideas and alternatives is not clearly developed in MS. For example, it does not define how these ideas emerge and does not further elaborate on the level of agency it assumes for its actors. As MS is based on the garbage can model, which is a social construction theory, it is appropriate to interpret elements of MS through a social construction lens. On the other hand, with its assumptions about the boundedly rational individual, MS borrows from positive, rational choice traditions. MS attributes an important role to individual actors called policy entrepreneurs (PEs), who are highly knowledgeable and recognised key individuals. They are manipulators of information with the aim of controlling the ambiguity of their environment (Hoyt and Garrison 1997; Zahariadis 2007) . They ‘soften up’ the policy community, decision makers and other participants in the agenda setting process. They then ‘couple’ the three independent streams, so that the environment is ready to allow an issue onto the agenda when a ‘window of opportunity’ arises. 25 Those ‘opportunities for a launch’ are only open for a short time and actors are under time pressure. PEs are influenced and limited by institutional arrangements (Capano 2009; Kingdon 2011, p. 230), which are not considered in detail. In contrast to AC, MS appears to provide a higher level of agency to individual and communal actors by assuming an active role for PEs in the agenda setting process (Zahariadis 1998). Like AC and the garbage can model, MS assumes boundedly rational actors. However, instead of explaining the motivation and behaviour of actors through a belief system, Kingdon’s considerations of the individual reflects Simon’s (1957) version of the 25 In fact, through the assumption that change is brought about by active coupling by policy entrepreneurs, rather than chance, Kingdon addresses an important criticism of the garbage can model (2001).
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74 bounded rational individual as a ‘satisficer’, with unclear goals. 26 This assumption of unclear goals means that MS’ bounded rational actors cannot undertake a cost/benefit analysis as in RI.
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  • Fall '13
  • Government, The Land, International Financial Reporting Standards, Financial Accounting Standards Board, Australian Accounting Standards Board, Snow

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