Non-Leadership FactorsLaissez-Faire (“Hands Off”) Represents lack of leadershipThis leader abdicates responsibility, delays decisions, gives no feedback, and makes little effort to help followers satisfy their needsTransformational Approach: Strengths vs. CriticismsStrengthsWidely researched from various perspectives, including qualitative studies of prominent leaders and CEOs, well known organizationsHas intuitive appealTreats leadership as a process that occurs between leaders and followersStrong emphasis on followers needs, values and moralsCriticismsLacks conceptual clarity – difficult to define the exact parameters of transformational leadershipHard to measureTreats leadership as a personality trait instead of a behavior that people can learnPotential to be abusedLeader-Member Exchange Theory (LMX)Early StudiesResearchers found two relationships between leader and followerIn-GroupoRelationships based on expanded and negotiated role responsibilitiesoReceives more information, influence, confidence and concerns from their leaderoMore dependable, communicative, and highly involvedOut-GroupoRelationships based on formal employment contractoLess compatible with the leader and usually just come to work, do their job, go homeLater Studies-Addressed how LMX was related to organizational effectivenessHigh quality leader-member relationships produced less employee turnover, positive evaluation, more promotions, better organizational commitment, better job attitudes and great participation-How LMX is related to empowerment
PHASE 1: The Stranger PhaseLow-quality exchanges between leader-follower, interactions are rule-boundPHASE 2: The Acquaintance PhaseMedium-quality exchanges between leader-follower, sharing more resources and person or work-related informationPHASE 3: The Partnership PhaseHigh-quality exchanges between leader-follower, high degree of mutual trust, respect and obligation towards each otherHow Does LMX Work?-It describes and prescribes leadership-Dyadic relationship forms between leader and follower-In-group membersWilling to do more than job descriptionLeaders give them more responsibility and support-Out-group membersOperate strictly within defined organizational roleLeaders treat out-group members fairly and accordingly with their formal contract, but do not give them special attentionLMX Theory: Strengths and WeaknessesStrengths-Makes several contributions to our learning of the leadership process; describes work in terms of those who contribute more or less to the organization-Only approach that focuses on the two-way relationship between a leader and follower-Directs attention to the importance of communication-The practice of LMX is related to positive organizational outcomesCriticisms-The surface of the theory counters to the basic human value of fairness (in-group vs.
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