E correct answer the frequent use of the repressive

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e. Correct answer. The frequent use of the repressive Espionage Act of 1917 and coercive Sedition Act of 1918 by the United States government to squelch and
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criminalize political dissent and vocal opposition to World War I expressed by Socialists, radical labor leaders and union members, and antiwar peace activists demonstrates that the U.S. government severely damaged civil liberties during World War I. The repeated wielding of these blunt legal instruments to curb political dissent during World War I reflected the U.S. government’s overwrought political fears of disloyalty and its excessive demands of political conformity during wartime. Question 4 a. Wilson had only belatedly undertaken some modest military and economic preparedness measures starting in 1915, including the creation of a civilian Council of National Defense to study the daunting problems of economic mobilization. President Wilson endorsed a modest strengthening of the army, which then consisted of a pre-war force of 100,000 regulars that ranked approximately fifteenth among the armies of the world. In addition, economic wartime mobilizers were handicapped by a lack of reliable information about the steel production and explosive powder capabilities of the United States. b. Prior to its 1917 entrance into World War I, the U.S. Army consisted of significantly fewer regulars under arms than the powerful European armies engaged in World War I. In addition, the shipbuilding program launched by President Wilson was designed as much to capture foreign trade as to prepare for America’s possible entry into the war. For example, prior to its entrance into the war, the United States lagged in military and technological research to combat the German submarine warfare that undermined British and American naval efforts to uphold free passage of commercial merchant shipping in the Atlantic Ocean. c. Prior to entering the war in 1917, the United States suffered from a profound lack of knowledge of its production capabilities concerning such key domestic wartime goods as steel and explosive powder. In addition, the opposition of states’ rights Democrats and businesspeople to government economic planning and controls over the peacetime U.S. economy meant that the production and consumption of goods critical to the impending war effort was determined by the chaotic, undisciplined vagaries of the laissez-faire peacetime American economy. d. Prior to the passage of the U.S. military conscription law in May of 1917, the U.S. Army possessed a significant strategic disadvantage in the total number of regular soldiers under arms, when compared with most of the major European powers fighting in World War I. e. Correct answer. In May 1917, the United States passed and frantically implemented a universal military conscription law in order to provide the Allies with a sufficient number of American men to prevent the impending collapse of the European western front. Prior to the passage of the United States military conscription law, the United States Army lacked a sufficient number of regular soldiers to influence the outcome of the land war in Europe.
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