Part of superoxide dismutase antioxidant enzyme system Vitamins and Metabolism

Part of superoxide dismutase antioxidant enzyme

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Part of superoxide dismutase antioxidant enzyme system Vitamins and Metabolism Vitamins and minerals oRequired for proper metabolism (but not “burned up”) oDo not directly provide energy oNecessary for obtaining energy from macronutrients oOften function as coenzymes §Enzyme cofactors Enzyme: a protein that accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction
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oRequired for all metabolic reactions Coenzyme: a molecule that combines with an enzyme to activate it **Most B-vitamins are coenzyme or enzyme factors B-Vitamins: Thiamin (Vitamin B1) Coenzyme for oCarbohydrate metabolism §Thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) oFatty Acid metabolism Sources: Pork, whole grains, enriched foods Deficiency: Beriberi: resulting in muscle wasting, nerve damage, and heart failure B-Vitamins: Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) Coenzyme for oCarbohydrate metabolism oFatty acid metabolism Part of coenzymes involved in oxidation-reduction reactions Part of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase Milk is a good source of riboflavin B-Vitamins: Niacin Coenzyme for oCarbohydrate metabolism oFatty acid metabolism Sources: meat, fish, poultry, enriched bread products Deficiency: Pellagra o4 Ds: dermatitis (inflammation of the skin), diarrhea, dementia, and death Toxicity: can result from supplements B-Vitamins: Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Group of six related compounds Functions oPart of a coenzyme for more than 100 enzymes oAssists in amino acid (protein) metabolism oNeurotransmitter synthesis oAssists in heme synthesis – Red Blood Cell component Sources: meat, fish, poultry, starchy vegetables, enriched cereals Deficiency: anemia, elevated levels of homocysteine
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Toxicity from supplements can result in nerve damage and skin lesions B-Vitamins: Folate Functions oDNA synthesis oAmino acid metabolism oRed blood cell synthesis Critical for cell division of very early embryos Sources: ready-to-eat cereals, enriched bread products Deficiency: macrocytic anemia oNeural Tube Defects in pregnancy §Folate is required for cell division and proper formation of the neural tube úDevelops into the brain and spinal cord úNeural Tube defects are permanent §The increased need for folate is critical in the first 4 weeks of pregnancy, frequently before a woman knows she is pregnant úAll women capable of being pregnant should consume an extra 400 mg/day of folate oCaused by a severe folate deficiency oResults in enlarged red blood cells carrying insufficient hemoglobin oCommon symptoms of anemia include §Weakness §Fatigue §Difficulty concentrating §Irritability §Headache §Shortness of breath Toxicity: can mask vitamin B12 deficiency B-Vitamins: Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Functions oPart of coenzymes for blood formation oRequired for nerve functioning oRequired for homocysteine breakdown
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Sources: animal-based foods Vegans are at risk for B12 deficiency
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  • Fall '12
  • Staff
  • red blood cells, Vitamin, bone health, fat-soluble vitamin

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