o Therapeutic for chemotherapy and glaucoma but may have undesirable effects o

O therapeutic for chemotherapy and glaucoma but may

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o Therapeutic: for chemotherapy and glaucoma but may have undesirable effects o Negatives effects: o Dr. Nora Volkow Sleep o 3-4 stages of consciousness, depending on who you get your info from o Brain “freaks out” the most during delta sleep, deep sleep o REM sleep, dreams occur in this stage o Stages 1-4 are nonREM sleep Slower brain waves, deep breathing calm heartbeat and low blood pressure o Stage 1 5 minutes Hallucinations Weightlessness Alien abduction o Stage 2 20 minutes Sleep spindles (dense electrical activity) Bursts of rapid brain waves Sleep talking ½ of all night is spent during this stage Alcohol and drugs interrupt stage 2 sleep, also shorten REM sleep o Stage 3 Transition between three and four Large slow delta waves – deep sleep o Stage 4 30 minutes Hard to get up during this stage Bed wetting, sleep walking o REM Sleep 1 hour after falling asleep Return to stage 3 then 2 Circle cycles Heart rate rises Eyes dart around, underneath eye lids Genitals become aroused Brain stem blocks the motor cortex Paralysis Dreaming begins Sleep cycle repeats every 90 minutes, human beings REM sleeps section gets longer through the night o Why sleep?
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Circadian rhythms: natural process that rotates about every 24 hours Most people maintain a 25-hour day without visual clues Jet Lag, it is easier to make yourself stay awake than to sleep earlier Neurons show a 24-25-hour firing pattern even when removed from the brain and put into a dish What functions does sleep serve? Sleep deprivation o Restorative role: long or short sleepers get about the same amount of nonrem sleep o More than 60% of all auto accidents occur during the fatigue hours 12-6AM Why does REM have so much importance o REM deprivation studies – people make p for lost REM sleep accg to EEG o REM and norepinephrine is produced during REM o REM and brain’s nerve connections are consolidate memories etc o Children spend more time in REM sleep than adults, clean itself o Solidify and assimilate the days’ learning experiences and mental efforts What problems exist? o 3 sleep disorders o Insomniac Most common, tied to distress, tied to psychiatric patients Sleeping pills: these need to be carefully monitored o Too much sleep (excessive day time disorder). Narcolepsy Daytime sleep disorder; drop in RED suddenly o sleep apnea Stop breathing hundreds of times throughout the night and wake up just in time to resume Disrupt the natural cycle Result: no rest but also do not recall their nighttime wakening o Parasomniacs Acting out your dream o SIDS: sudden stop in breathing and suffocation.
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