Structure of these EIA learning materials In this module, the EIA process is discussed in 11 Sections. Following this introductory section, Background (Section 1), are the following 10 Sections in order, with a brief description of the purpose of each stage in the EIA process: Law, Policy and Institutional Arrangements (Section 2): To provide regulatory and legislative governance structures and requirements of EIA processes for project proponents, EIA practitioners and stakeholders. Public involvement (Section 3): To inform the public about the proposal and to gain the inputs of those directly affected by or interested in the proposal. Public involvement in some form may occur throughout the EIA process, although it tends to be focused on scoping and review phases of EIA.
Screening (Section 4): To decide whether or not a proposal should be subject to the EIA process and, if so, at what level of detail. Scoping (Section 5): To identify the key issues and impacts that are likely to require further investigation, and to prepare the terms of reference for the EIA study. Impact analysis (Section 6): To identify and predict the likely environmental and social effects of the proposal and evaluate their significance. Mitigation and impact management (Section 7): To develop measures to avoid, reduce or compensate for impacts, making good any environmental damage. Reporting (Section 8 ): To describe the results of the EIA for decision- makers and other interested parties. Review of EIA quality (Section 9): To examine the adequacy of the EIA report to see if it meets the terms of reference and provides the information necessary for decision-making. Decision-making (Section 10): To approve or reject the proposal and set the terms and conditions under which it can proceed. The decision-maker also has the option to defer approval (e.g. until certain conditions are met or to require a proponent to redesign the project so that the environmental effects are minimised). Implementation and follow up (Section 11): To check on the implementation of the terms and conditions of approval during the construction and operation phases; to monitor the impacts of the project and the effectiveness of mitigation measures; to take any actions necessary to ameliorate problems; and, as required, to undertake audit and evaluation to strengthen future EIA applications. In this module you will be looking only at EIA. However, it is important to recognise that there is a general principle of assessment that applies to EIA, and to other assessment processes. There are several other processes that relate closely to the review of environmental impacts that may result from a proposed project. The following are well recognised processes: Social Impact Assessment Risk Assessment Life Cycle Analysis Energy Analysis
Health Impact Assessment Regulatory Impact Assessment Species Impact Assessment Technology Assessment Economic Assessment Cumulative Impact Assessment Strategic Environmental Assessment Integrated Impact Assessment Some, like Energy Analysis, focus on a particular part of the environment.
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- Winter '17
- Environmental impact assessment, Environmental impact statement, National Environmental Policy Act, EIA