Reached compromise w papacy in 1107 relinquished ceremony of lay investiture He

Reached compromise w papacy in 1107 relinquished

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Reached compromise w/ papacy in 1107; relinquished ceremony of lay investiture -He died in 1135; left one surviving child, a daughter named MatildaMatildamarried Count Geoffrey Plantagenet of Anjou; joined two great regions in France-Had a serious rival with her cousin Stephen of Blois; at Henry’s death, Stephen seized English throne-Matilda fought back; civil wars ensued for 19 years
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-Both built unlicensed castles, fought; England suffered vast economic devastation-Civil war ended in compromise: Matilda’s son, Henry II, named king upon Stephen’s deathHenry II and the Angevin EmpireHenry II (Henry Plantagenet) became King of England in 1153-Also was Duke of Normandy, count of Anjou, husband of Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine -Immense holding of lands on both sides of Channel created the Angevin Empire Under his rule, huge steps taken to development of English common law-Common Law = uniform law administered by royal courts; superseded all regional/shire jurisdictions-He also sought to expand royal justice at the expense of ecclesiastical powerKing Henry & papacy began clashing in 1160s; Henry locked in struggle with former friend Thomas Becket-Thomas Becketwas very good friend of Henry; appointed Becket as archbishop of Canterbury-Becket became devoted to church; became enemy of Henry-Becket was murdered by one of Henry’s barons at Canterbury Cathedral-Becket immediately became a martyr; Canterbury became major pilgrimage siteKing Henry didn’t order the killing of Becket; did penance by ceremonial flogging in the streets-Gained control of appointments to high church office with Becket’s deathFrench monarchy wanted to break up his large Angevin Empire; encouraged Henry’s sons to rebel-When Henry was nearing death in 1189, sons Richardand Johnwere in arms against him-His dying words were “Shame, shame on a conquered king”The Loss of the Angevin EmpireHenry’s Angevin dominions passed to his eldest son, Richard I (The Lion-Hearted)-Immediately devoted himself to defending his French lands and leading Crusades against the Muslims-Wasn’t in England for 10 years; taxed the nation extensively -He died prematurely in 1199King Johnhas a very crisis-prone reign; faced two main enemies: Phillip II Augustus of France and Pope Innocent III-Philip Augustus wanted to take John’s French holdingsHe invaded Normandy in 1203, seized all of John’s French lands except for parts of Aquitaine John fought long campaign against Philip, all by heavily taxing the English subjectsPhilip defeated John’s Flemish and German allies at Battle of Bouvines; John lost French lands forever-Pope Innocent II sought to assert papal authority over English againJohn’s neglect and heavy taxation of England caused mass uprising of English barons-Forced him to issue the Magna Carta(“Great Charter”)Some historians see MC as document to favor old aristocracy over new powers of the King
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