Technique transformed cells carrying the transgene of

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TECHNIQUE Transformed cells carrying the transgene of interest can regenerate complete plants that exhibit the new trait conferred by the transgene. RESULTS 1 The Ti plasmid is isolated from the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The segment of the plasmid that integrates into the genome of host cells is called T DNA. 2 Isolated plasmids and foreign DNA containing a gene of interest are incubated with a restriction enzyme that cuts in the middle of T DNA. After base pairing occurs between the sticky ends of the plasmids and foreign DNA fragments, DNA ligase is added. Some of the resulting stable recombinant plasmids contain the gene of interest. 3 Recombinant plasmids can be introduced into cultured plant cells by electroporation. Or plasmids can be returned to Agrobacterium, which is then applied as a liquid suspension to the leaves of susceptible plants, infecting them. Once a plasmid is taken into a plant cell, its T DNA integrates into the cell‘s chromosomal DNA. Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid Site where restriction enzyme cuts T DNA DNA with the gene of interest Recombinant Ti plasmid Plant with new trait Figure 20.19 Ti Plasmid common vector
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Infection by the Ti plasmid
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Trangenetics DNA from one species is inserted into another bacteria or other animals For gene manipulation and genetic engineering
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Transgenic plants Allows for choice of traits Eg. Seedless Thinner skin Larger size Resistance
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Eg. Golden Rice Vitamin A deficiency 1 million deaths per year 500,000 cases of blindness per year
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Golden Rice 1990’s Engineered genes from the beta -carotene pathway in daffodils into rice endosperm Rice converts it to vitamin A Successful in 2000
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Concerns Decreased biodiversity Health risks Are the products safe for consumption? Procedure safe? Environmental risks Economic exploitation of regional farmers
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Ventria Rice Diarrhea 18% of childhood deaths in the world Incorporates human genes into plant Gene for protein production allows for hydration (protein found in mother’s milk) High protein content in rice
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Transgenic animals contain genes from other organisms Injected desired gene into cell - incorporated Engineered to be pharmaceutical “factories” Desired factor may be exported in milk Eg. Antibody, clotting factor Figure 20.18
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Transgenic Therapy (Human) Germ -line gene therapy Transgenic cells into stem cells Whole organism Somatic gene therapy Cells injected into tissue To correct disease Eg. pancreas
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Types of gene therapy in mammals Figure 20-34
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Animal Cloning Totipotent cell capable of generating a complete new organism Cloning Using one or more somatic cells to make another genetically identical individual
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Nuclear transplantation The nucleus of an unfertilized egg cell or zygote is replaced with the nucleus of a differentiated cell Nucleus removed Mammary cell donor Egg cell donor Egg cell from ovary Cultured mammary cells are semistarved, arresting the cell cycle and causing dedifferentiation Nucleus from mammary cell Grown in culture Early embryo
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