Vappa woppo (derogatory term used for Italians, among Italians) Wine was kept in barrels (could not be aged) o Size/volume of barrel expressed as tons o Size of ships describes how many barrels of wine can be stored o Quand le vin est tire il faut le boire: When the wine is drawn one has to drink it 17 th Century: cork (made from bark of particular oak) o Made aging in bottles possible o Within 100 years, bottles got longer because it was placed sideways (cork had to be kept moist) o Before, bottles were short & flat to make it stable when on table Phylloxera insect infestation o Late 1800s o Vine roots were eated o Gustave Foex (French doctor): grafted American roots onto French o French variety before infestation not found in France anymore (but instead, Chile!! They were transported before the infestation because Chile is protected by the Andes) Carmenere (used to be used to make Bordeaux wine) °
° Production of Wine White wine: made from both red (w/o skin) & white grapes Red wine: made from red wine Yeast (on the grape’s surface) + sugar (in the grape) CO 2 + ethanol Used to be crushed by foot Red wine: short fermentation (~1 week), high temperature White wine: long fermentation (weeks), lower temperature [alcohol] cannot go over 14% because it will kill the yeast o Except fortified wines: alcohol added after fermentation completes 18%-20% alcohol Two step process o 1) 1-4 years in barrels (stainless steel tanks nowadays) o 2) Up to 50 years in bottles Responsible for bouquet (chemicals that give the wine its aroma & flavour) Ex. Phenylethyl acetate (rose fragrance) Wine contains 2-phenylethyl acetate Wine is enjoyed through taste AND smell ° ° Regions France as many varieties of wine Bordeaux o Aristocratic type of wine o Ages really well Chateau Lafite (goes back to 18 th century) Most expensive wine (Chateau Lafite 1787) bought Cost $160,000 Bought by Malcolm Forbes Unopened, placed in Forbes Company head office People claim it’s a fraud “The Billionaire’s Vinegar” Chateau Lafite 1822 $31,000 Bought by 6 Texan lawyers
Said it was “interesting” (?!) o Subdivided into 24 regions Medoc: red wine Haut-Medoc (south) More wel-known than Medoc Within it, there is the Margaux area o Within Margaux village, there is are chateau o Especially renown is the Chateau Margaux Graves: red & white Pomerol: mostly red (great!) Saint-Emilion (smaller): red wine Sauternes: sweet wine (rotten grapes = dehydration) Good to have it with foie gras Chateau d’Yquem Costs >$500, close to $600 Botrytis rot: la pourriture noble Dior has face cream with this ($400/container) o L’Or de Vie Burgundy o Smaller than Bordeaux o Not as aristocratic; has more personality o Cote d’or (further north) Great wines like Chambertin & Montrachet Montrachet was Alexandre Dumas’ (French novelist) favorite He said the only way to drink it was hats off, kneeled down o Maconnais of the Beaujolais (place) Beaujolais is a young wine
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