Peers estimated their friends to drink more on their 21 st birthday but in

Peers estimated their friends to drink more on their

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-Peers estimated their friends to drink more on their 21 st birthday but in reality drank less Etiology: Genetic Factors: -Greater concordance in MZ than DZ twins 1. Men: alcohol, caffeine, smoking, marijuana, & drug abuse in general 2. Women: role genetics less clear (fewer available studies—findings are mixed) -Ability to tolerate large quantities of alcohol may inherited diathesis- a tendency to suffer from a particular medical condition 1. Asians have low rates of alcohol abuse (evidence for physiological intolerance in this group)
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Etiology: Neurobiological Factors: -Incentive-sensitization theory 1. wanting (craving for drug) 2. Liking (pleasure obtained by taking the drug) 3. Dopamine sys. becomes sensitive to the drug & associated cues (ex. needles, rolling paper) 4. Sensitivity to cues induces & strengthens wanting Treatment & Prevention: Family-based approaches that seek to: Modify negative interactions between family members, improve communication, and develop effective problem-solving skills to address areas of conflict Motivational interviewing (MI) A patient-centered and directive approach Addresses ambivalence and discrepancies between a person’s current values and behaviors and their future goals Treatment & Prevention (cont.): Adolescents with more severe levels of abuse, unstable living conditions, or comorbid psychopathology require an inpatient or residential setting Effective approaches address multiple influences (peer, family, school, and community) on the individual Substance Abuse & Violence: (1) Substance use causes violence (2) Violence leads to substance use (3) Relationship is reciprocal (4) Relationship reflects “third” variable (e.g., potential common causes) Comorbidity: WHY ELEVATED COMORBIDITY? Self-medication hypothesis Less appreciation for the (-) consequences of use Poor judgment with respect to peer group selection Substance use/abuse exacerbates mental health disorders and psychopathology Psychopathology accelerates onset of abuse or dependence Depression unrelated to nicotine use or onset but significantly predicts nicotine addiction SU Causes Violence: Psychopharmacological model Intoxication effects induce or cause disinhibition, cognitive/perceptual changes, neurochemical Chronic substance use may also influence: Withdrawal Sleep deprivation Nutritional deficits Neuropsychological impairment Enhance psychopathology or negative personality traits Violence leads to SU: Aggressive individuals more likely to select (or be pushed into) social contexts where substance use encouraged/accepted Lifestyles of violent individuals conducive to significant substance use/abuse Unstable employment Third Variable Explanation: Potential shared traits or characteristics.
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