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authoritative parenting was associated with less of anincrease in internalizing behavior problems over time,when controlling for BI (Williams et al., 2009).Closely related to perceptions of parenting styleare parenting beliefs, such as beliefs about parentingor about the specific needs of certain children (Rubinet al., 2009). The link between maternal behaviorand BI or anxiety may be developed through themother’sbeliefsaboutparticularchildbehaviors(Rubin, Nelson, Hastings, & Asendorpf, 1999). Forinstance, when mothers interpret children’s wari-nessashighlydistressing,theymayfeeloverlyconcerned and attempt to control the situation todecreasetheirchildren’sdiscomfort.Therefore,children with BI may elicit protection from othersand, ironically, this protective parenting behaviormay maintain inhibited child behavior and lead to ananxiety disorder (Mills & Rubin, 1993; Rubin & Mills,1990). Although this concern and involvement mayseem adaptive, such beliefs and behaviors may pre-vent an inhibited child from independently experi-encing positive achievements and developing copingskills in novel situations. Conversely, research hasshownthatBIisnegativelyrelatedtomaternalendorsement of empathy, appropriate developmentalexpectations, and use of positive discipline strategies(Partridge, 2003), suggesting that some parents maynot adopt such a concerned attitude towards theirinhibited child. These diverse differences in parentalbeliefsmayexertimportantinfluencesontheirsubsequentparentingbehaviorandthedevelop-mental outcomes of their BI children. In addition, itis important to note which individual is reporting onparents’ behavior or style, as individual biases mayinfluencetheirresponses.Forinstance,childrenwith heightened anxiety may perceive their parentsas more rejecting or negative, due to their own vigi-lance to the surrounding environment. Similarly,parents with their own psychopathology may havelow efficacy in their parenting skills, and as a resultreport more negative, controlling styles. More work isneededwithmultipleinformantsofparentingbehaviors, psychopathology, and the overall parent–childrelationshipinordertoteaseaparttheseintervening factors from child BI and anxiety.Mother–childattachmentandfamilyrelation-ships.Parents’repeatedinteractionswiththeirinhibited children influence the broader parent–childrelationship and family climate. When parents reactto their inhibited children by protecting and guardingthem from their fears, and parenting in an overpro-tective or intrusive manner, the child’s fears arereinforced and even heightened. While it is plausiblethat maternal efforts to minimize their children’s fearsmay appear sensitive in nature and might lead to asecure attachment, parents’ constant effort to guardchildren from fearful situations might actually put agreat deal of strain on the relationship, leading to aninsecure attachment. In fact, research has shown that