Throughput • Most significant factor in choosing transmission method • Causes of throughput limitations – Laws of physics – Signaling and multiplexing techniques – Noise – Devices connected to transmission medium • Fiber-optic cables allow faster throughput – Compared to copper or wireless connections N e w o k + G ui d e o s, 6 h E 39
Cost • Precise costs difficult to pinpoint • Media cost dependencies – Existing hardware, network size, labor costs • Variables influencing final cost – Installation cost – New infrastructure cost versus reuse – Maintenance and support costs – Cost of lower transmission rate affecting productivity N e w o k + G ui d e o s, 6 h E 40
Noise Immunity • Noise distorts data signals – Distortion rate dependent upon transmission media • Fiber-optic: least susceptible to noise • Limit noise impact on network – Cable installation • Far away from powerful electromagnetic forces – Select media protecting signal from noise – Antinoise algorithms N e w o k + G ui d e o s, 6 h E 41
Size and Scalability • Three specifications – Maximum nodes per segment – Maximum segment length – Maximum network length • Maximum nodes per segment dependency – Attenuation and latency • Maximum segment length dependency – Attenuation and latency plus segment type N e w o k + G ui d e o s, 6 h E 42
Size and Scalability (cont’d.) • Segment types – Populated: contains end nodes – Unpopulated: no end nodes • Also called link segment • Segment length limitation – After certain distance, signal loses strength • Cannot be accurately interpreted N e w o k + G ui d e o s, 6 h E 43
Connectors and Media Converters • Connectors – Hardware connecting wire to network device – Specific to particular media type – Affect costs • Installing and maintaining network • Ease of adding new segments or nodes • Technical expertise required to maintain network • Media converter – Hardware enabling networks or segments N e w o k + G ui d e o s, 6 h E 44
N e w o k + G ui d e o s, 6 h E 45 Courtesy of Omnitron Systems Technology Figure 3-15 Copper wire-to-fiber media converter
Coaxial Cable • Central metal core (often copper) surrounded by: – Insulator – Braided metal shielding (braiding or shield) – Outer cover (sheath or jacket) N e w o k + G ui d e o s, 6 h E 46 Figure 3-16 Coaxial cable Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning
Coaxial Cable (cont’d.) • High noise resistance • Advantage over twisted pair cabling – Carry signals farther before amplifier required • Disadvantage over twisted pair cabling – More expensive • Hundreds of specifications – RG specification number – Differences: shielding and conducting cores • Transmission characteristics N e w o k + G ui d e o s, 6 h E 47
Coaxial Cable (cont’d.) • Conducting core – American Wire Gauge (AWG) size – Larger AWG size, smaller wire diameter • Data networks usage – RG-6 – RG-8 – RG-58 – RG-59 N e w o k + G ui d e o s, 6 h E 48
N e w o k + G ui d e o s, 6 h E 49 Courtesy of MCM Electronics, Inc.
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- Networking, Twisted pair, Coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, Technology/Cengage Learning, Courtesy Course