Rag 12 recombination activated genes essential for

Info icon This preview shows pages 2–5. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
RAG 1:2 (Recombination Activated Genes) -Essential for Immunoglobulin and TCR gene rearrangement. They form a complex with other proteins to initiate V(D)J recombination. –Binds both RSSs together and forms a DNA hairpin at coding ends. Ku 70:80 – Binds at DNA ends forming a ring, binding to protein kinase catalytic subunit, DNA-PKes, to form DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK).
Image of page 2

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
DNA-PK: Artemis – Opens the hairpin, generating palindromic P-nucleotides. TdT (Terminal deoxynucleotide Transferase) – Adds nucleotides randomly to the single strand ends. DNA ligase IV: XRCC4 – join both DNA ends together XRCC4 – DNA repair protein 9) What is the role TdT in the process of DNA recombination? TdT: Adds N-nucleotides to the V, D and J exons during antibody gene recombination, enabling the phenomenon of Junctional Diversity. Is the addition of nucleotides random or not? Tdt only matches Ligase joins the gaps Junctional diversity the diversity provided by adding different axons from diff clusters is variable diversity / combinatorial diversity of variable regions T Cell Development and Selection in the Thymus 10) Explain the events that take place in the different developmental stages during the journey of thymocytes through the cortical area of a thymus capsule. 11) Which events (and what order) take place during Double Negative stages of thymocyte development? 12) What are cortical and medullary epithelial cells and what are their function? 13) Explain what is positive and negative selection in relation to T cell development? And where do these two process take place? 14) Explain the differences of central and peripheral tolerance in relation to T cells. 15) What is the relevance of CD44 and CD25 markers in the understanding of T cell development? 16) Explain the chronological events regarding DNA rearrangement happening in thymocytes during the journey of development of these cells in the thymus. 17) Why lymphocyte development/selection is important within the context of
Image of page 3
human immunity? B cell: Immunoglobulin /Antibody, 18) Explain the differences between B and T cells in terms of how they recognize antigens. Antigen Presenting Cells take a sample of the pathogen to the lymph node and present it to T-cells, but no to B-cells. B-cells recognize the antigen by their own receptors. B-cells Receptors : Recognizes main proteins produced by a particular pathogen. Protein doesn’t need to be transformed or degraded. T-cells Receptors : The protein has to be 8-17 amino acids. Antigen must be presented by an MHC Molecules (MHC I,II) 19) Explain the differences between B cells and Plasma cells. B-cell is the inactive form of Plasma cells. B-cells stay inactive until it gets activated by itself, or a T-cell (who is already activated) comes and help it get activated into a plasma cell. B- cell proliferates into plasma cells, which then secretes antibodies.
Image of page 4

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 5
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern